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Thomas W. N. Haine

1. Introduction The global ocean overturning circulation is transformed in the high latitudes of both hemispheres. The transformation is achieved by extraction of heat to the atmosphere, addition of meteoric freshwater (from precipitation minus evaporation, river runoff, and iceberg calving), and interaction with ice. Understanding how warm salty inflows to polar oceans partition into different outflow components is primitive, however, and this question is important for oceanography and climate

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Yves M. Tourre and Warren B. White

advection over the Indian continent, reducing rainfall ( Sikka 1980 ; Shukla 1987 ). While ENSO signal modulates the Indian monsoon, an important question is whether the land–atmosphere–ocean processes that lead to the monsoon variability on the annual cycle also play a role on the 3–6 yr timescale of ENSO? And do these land–atmosphere–ocean processes contribute to the slow eastward propagation of the ENSO signal in the Indo–Pacific domain? Acknowledgments Our thanks extend to Arthur (Ted) Walker, who

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Franklin B. Schwing and Jackson O. Blanton

, C. E., 1982: Winds between San Diego and San Clemente Island. J. Geophys. Res., 87, 9636-9646.Halliwell, G. R., Jr., and C. N. K. Mooers, 1980: Statistical analysis and hindcasts of atmospheric forcing fields in the Georges Bank Gulf of Maine region. Appendix G of the 13th Quarterly ProgressReport. EG&G Environmental Consultants, Waltham, MA.Kraus, E. B., 1972: Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 139-141.Kundu, P. J., J. O. Blanton and M. M. Janopaul, 1981: Analysis

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Shenn-Yu Chao

-sea interaction further in the atmosphere. Observations during GALE revealed that the windstress over the ocean is consistently much higher thanthat over land during cold-air outbreaks (Blanton, private communication). While differential surfaceroughness is partially responsible, the present modelsuggests that the postfrontal downdraft is primarily responsible for the wind-stress intensification over coastaloceans. The postfrontal downdrafi also helps to explainthe existence of a cloud-free region off the

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Le Ngoc Ly

influenceis especially la~ in the distributions of TKE on both s/des of the interface, surface drift current velodty, windvelocity at the 10-m height, dra8 coefficient, and surface rouE!mess. The results of the model are compared,where possible, with the observational data.1. Introduction The interaction between the atmosphere and oceanhas long been recognized as an important process inthe dynamic and thermodynamic behavior of bothmedia. The transport of momentum and energy acrossthe interface

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Sergey V. Kravtsov and William K. Dewar

( Stocker and Wright 1991 ; Wang and Birchfield 1992 ). Wang and Birchfield have shown using an idealized three basin coupled ocean–atmosphere box model that different values of the net water vapor flux from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean affect the stability characteristics of the system to perturbations in latitudinal moisture transport. Large values of interocean transport increase the sensitivity. The effects of interaction between Atlantic Ocean and atmospheric hydrological cycle (latitudinal

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K. Bryan, S. Manabe, and M. J. Spelman

~ems of the coupled c[[mate model854 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 18 The box diagram in Fig. 2 illustrates the major components of the coupled ocean-atmosphere model andthe interaction among these components. The atmosphere and ocean of the coupled model interact witheach other through exchanges of heat, water and momentum. Components of heat exchange are the

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Eli Tziperman and Hezi Gildor

sections describe the simple box model used here ( section 2 ), the results of our stability analysis with and without the temperature–precipitation feedback ( section 3 ), and we conclude in section 4 . 2. The box model The coupled ocean–atmosphere–sea ice model ( Fig. 1 ) is based on that of Gildor and Tziperman (2000 , 2001 ) except that it does not includes a prognostic land ice component. Only a brief model description is given here, and additional details may be found in the above papers. The

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Johan Nilsson

presence of a westerly mean wind. He considers a two-level as well as a continuous atmospheric model that exchanges heat with a dynamically passive ocean mixed layer of fixed depth. As a general rule, Frankignoul shows that the SST anomalies, due to interaction with the atmosphere, decay exponentially with time and are advanced eastward. The rate of decay and the speed of eastward propagation depend on the scale of the SST anomaly. Beneath the continuous atmospheric model, the rate of decay increases

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Tracy Haack, Dudley Chelton, Julie Pullen, James D. Doyle, and Michael Schlax

; Castelao et al. 2006 ). A recent study by Chelton et al. (2007 , hereafter CSS07 ) identified strong influences of the CA Current’s SST distribution on the surface wind stress in summertime from satellite data. In that study, indications of ocean–atmosphere interaction are manifest as small-scale structures in the wind stress curl and divergence fields, which are linearly related to the crosswind and downwind SST gradients, respectively. The slopes, or coupling coefficients, from these linear

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