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David M. Schultz, Derek S. Arndt, David J. Stensrud, and Jay W. Hanna

produce parallel cloud bands (or cloud streets), which can be a common occurrence in the atmosphere (e.g., Kuettner 1959 , 1971 ; Atkinson and Zhang 1996 ; Weckwerth et al. 1997 ; Young et al. 2002 ). The mechanisms that lead to HCR development can be grouped into either thermal or dynamic instabilities. Because the event on 23 January 2003 was associated with cold continental air flowing over a relatively warm land surface, the thermal-instability mechanism is a likely candidate. For such a

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Werner Alpers, Andrei Yu. Ivanov, and Knut-Frode Dagestad

the Likhi Ridge flows through the Kolkhida Lowland to the Black Sea. As reported by Guniya et al. (2010) , on its way westward, the airflow is strongly attenuated as a result of the interaction with the rough land surface and the widening of the cross section of the valley. The SAR-derived wind field depicted in Fig. 2 shows that at 0732 UTC the wind speed was around 12 m s −1 over the Black Sea. Assuming that the average speed of the air traveling from Kutaisi to the front of the wind band

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Eric A. Hendricks, Brian D. McNoldy, and Wayne H. Schubert

; Reasor et al. 2000 ; Roux and Viltard 2004 ). Rarely are land-based Doppler radars able to capture intricate structural details of organized eyewalls, because the hurricane typically becomes disorganized as it approaches the coast, and second because there is a relatively short window of time prior to landfall that the storm is in radar range. Such a rare event occurred in 2008, as Hurricane Dolly approached the Texas coast. Unprecedented observations of the inner core of Dolly were taken from the

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Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Gerhard Held, and Ana Maria Gomes

. 2010 ) were used in the synoptic analysis. NCEP CFSR data have 0.5° horizontal grid spacing and 37 vertical levels from the surface to 1 hPa and were obtained online ( ). Figures of NCEP CFSR fields and skew T –log p diagrams were generated using the Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies (COLA) Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS). 3. Discussion a. General overview and visual characteristics of the tornadic episode The 24 May 2005 Indaiatuba

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