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Nuria Vargas and Víctor Magaña

rural and urban regions. The MCMA is located in the lower part of the valley of Mexico, surrounded by mountains ( Fig. 1 ). The temperature decreases with height, resulting in a natural large thermal gradient between the lower and higher parts. But the MCMA UHI has formed mainly in relation to land-use changes, from natural vegetation to urban infrastructure. Therefore, the UHI may be defined as a canopy-layer UHI ( Oke et al. 2017 ), where deforestation and urbanization enhance the local warming

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

). Independent of evidence from remote sensing, climate research had already demonstrated that large-scale drying could be explained by factors external to the region, namely, changes in the surface temperature of the global oceans ( Folland et al. 1986 ), with no need to invoke regional-scale land degradation and its interaction with atmospheric dynamics as originally envisaged. More recent research has confirmed the dominant role of global sea surface temperature patterns in driving the twentieth

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José L. Hernández, Syewoon Hwang, Francisco Escobedo, April H. Davis, and James W. Jones

were assessed separately and water use distribution was used to help explain changes in this land use category. We did not limit our study to the administrative boundary of the SWFWMD, but chose the wider coast to coast central Florida region in the modeling domain to better analyze comprehensive ocean–atmosphere–terrestrial interactions of major influence on peninsular climate conditions. Fig . 1. (a) The 1995–2006 evolution of LUC showed a dominant increase of 128 000 ha (26.6%) in urban areas

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Juan Declet-Barreto, Kim Knowlton, G. Darrel Jenerette, and Alexander Buyantuev

1. Introduction Exposure to high summertime temperatures is a significant threat to human health, especially in cities, where urban heat islands (UHIs) are elevating temperatures already on the rise from global climate change. Heat-retaining, impervious land covers like paved roadways and unvegetated surfaces and alterations to wind and energetic flows from vertical surfaces of buildings elevate local temperatures in UHIs. These anthropogenic, regional-scale transformations to natural land

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António Lobo, Sara Ferreira, Isabel Iglesias, and António Couto

than the average of the European Union (21%). In addition, the rate of pedestrian fatalities observed in Portugal in 2015 was also higher than the European average (14 vs 11 deaths per million inhabitants) ( European Road Safety Observatory 2017 ). Several studies focused on pedestrians were conducted with diverse objectives, such as evaluating risk factors affecting the frequency and severity of pedestrian victims ( Jacobsen 2003 ; Mujalli et al. 2019 ), analyzing the interaction between vehicles

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Anthony Leiserowitz

Decades of research by many of the world’s leading natural scientists have enormously improved our understanding of how the climate system works, including the complex interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, cryosphere, orbital mechanics, and solar activity. This work has established core and unequivocal findings—that the greenhouse effect exists, that atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are rapidly increasing, that the earth is now warming, and that human activities

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Avital Li and James Ford

. 3 as land speculation, development, and the construction of the road, puts additional pressure on land availability and increases perceptions of tenure insecurity, which interviewees associated with increasing notions of private property. 4) Key drivers and trajectories of change The key drivers of change in Playitas are both internal and external. The interactions between items of change in the whole system are illustrated in Fig. 5 . Population growth and development are the two drivers

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Jason A. Otkin, Tonya Haigh, Anthony Mucia, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

impact. b. Evaporative stress index The evaporative stress index (ESI) depicts standardized anomalies in the ratio of actual to reference ET, where the actual ET flux is estimated from remote sensing data using the Atmosphere–Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI; Anderson et al. 1997 , 2007a , b , 2011 ) surface energy balance model, and the reference ET flux is computed using a Penman–Monteith formulation for a grass reference surface ( Allen et al. 1998 ). Normalization of actual ET by a reference ET

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Rebecca Bendick, Kyla M. Dahlin, Brian V. Smoliak, Lori Kumler, Sierra J. Jones, Athena Aktipis, Ezekiel Fugate, Rachel Hertog, Claus Moberg, and Dane Scott

1. Introduction Few scientists or policy makers now dispute the importance of mitigating human-based emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially carbon dioxide, to the atmosphere. The possible results of increasing emission rates include catastrophic and rapid changes to earth’s climate system with consequent impacts on human welfare ( Bernstein et al. 2007 ). In 2004, Pacala and Socolow proposed a portfolio of options or “wedges” for reaching a CO 2 emissions reduction goal of stabilized

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Paola A. Arias, Juan Camilo Villegas, Jenny Machado, Angélica M. Serna, Lina M. Vidal, Catherine Vieira, Carlos A. Cadavid, Sara C. Vieira, Jorge E. Ángel, and Óscar A. Mejía

1. Introduction The complex interactions between global- and local-scale environmental changes (mainly related to land use and human activities) are tightly related to the potential occurrence of natural disasters affecting ecosystems, communities, and their interactions. Current and expected environmental changes lead to a higher level of uncertainty in the occurrence of potentially catastrophic events, posing a challenge to current disaster management strategies. On top of climate and

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