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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

vegetation has been recently added to many regional and global climate models after primarily being incorporated only in offline (uncoupled) land surface models. In addition, the large impact that land–atmosphere coupling has on the warm-season climate of the Great Plains ( Delire et al. 2004 ; Koster et al. 2003 ; Koster et al. 2004 ) implies that modeling studies that investigate the regional climate impacts of irrigation should incorporate biosphere–atmosphere interactions that may influence the

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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

-cover representation. The main LUC transition occurs over southwest Western Australia (SWWA) and southeast Australia (SEA), coinciding with large-scale clearing of native forests that were replaced with crops and grasses ( Figures 1a,b ). This change in vegetation potentially provides a strong and spatially coherent forcing that should enable us to examine the impact of land-cover change on climate extremes and how this is modulated by land–atmosphere interactions. We note that the land-cover descriptions were

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Jean-Sébastien Landry, Navin Ramankutty, and Lael Parrott

representations of land–atmosphere interactions, but applying the approach to state-of-the-art Earth system climate models seems hardly feasible because of the practical (discretization of the probability density functions) and conceptual (modification of each probability density function in response to climate change) issues. In large-scale climate models, which currently do not resolve mesoscale subgrid circulation ( Pielke et al. 2007 ), none of the previous approaches account for the specific location of

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

-1383-2010 . Beltrán-Przekurat , A. , R. A. Pielke Sr. , J. L. Eastman , and M. B. Coughenour , 2012 : Modelling the effects of land-use/land-cover changes on the near-surface atmosphere in southern South America . Int. J. Climatol. , 32 , 1206 – 1225 , doi: 10.1002/joc.2346 . Betts , R. A. , P. M. Cox , M. Collins , P. P. Harris , C. Huntingford , and C. D. Jones , 2004 : The role of ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in simulated Amazonian precipitation decrease and forest

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

. Lett. , 25 , 2833 – 2836 , doi: 10.1029/98GL02106 . Shi , W. , F. Tao , and J. Liu , 2014 : Regional temperature change over the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China: The roles of irrigation versus urbanization . Int. J. Climatol. , 34 , 1181 – 1195 , doi: 10.1002/joc.3755 . Steyaert , L. T. , and R. G. Knox , 2008 : Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D

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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

: Statistical analysis . Earth Interact. , 10 , doi: 10.1175/EI196.1 . Xue , Y. , and J. Shukla , 1993 : The influence of land surface properties on Sahel climate. Part I: Desertification . J. Climate , 6 , 2232 – 2245 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<2232:TIOLSP>2.0.CO;2 . Xue , Y. , A. Boone , and C. M. Taylor , 2012 : Review of recent developments and the future prospective in West African atmosphere/land interaction studies . Int. J. Geophys. , 2012 , 748921 , doi: 10

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

. House , and A. Arneth , 2017 : Biophysical effects on temperature and precipitation due to land cover change . Environ. Res. Lett. , 12 , 053002 , https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa6b3f . 10.1088/1748-9326/aa6b3f Pielke , R. A. , Sr. , R. Avissar , M. Raupach , A. J. Dolman , X. Zeng , and A. S. Denning , 1998 : Interactions between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems: Influence on weather and climate . Global Change Biol. , 4 , 461 – 475 , https://doi.org/10

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

Paper, 22 pp. [Available online at http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/images/stories/papers/originals/pacific_decadal.pdf .] Comarazamy , D. E. , J. E. Gonzalez , J. C. Luvall , D. L. Rickman , and P. J. Mulero , 2010 : A land–atmospheric interaction study in the coastal tropical city of San Juan, Puerto Rico . Earth Interact. , 14 , doi: 10.1175/2010EI309.1 . Comarazamy , D. E. , J. E. Gonzalez , J. C. Luvall , D. L. Rickman , and R. D. Bornstein , 2013 : Climate

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

at http://assets.climatecentral.org/pdfs/UrbanHeatIsland.pdf .] Collins , W. D. , and Coauthors . , 2004 : Description of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN–464+STR, 214 pp . Commission for Environmental Cooperation , 2013 : British Columbia 2005-2010 land cover change. Commission for Environmental Cooperation, accessed 10 February 2014. [Available online at http://www.cec.org/naatlas/ .] Craig , K. , and R. Bornstein , 2002 : MM5 simulation of

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Dev Niyogi, Ming Lei, Chandra Kishtawal, Paul Schmid, and Marshall Shepherd

1. Introduction A number of recent studies have noted an increase in heavy or extreme rainfall events over many parts of the globe ( Brunetti et al. 2004 ; Zhai et al. 2005 ; Goswami et al. 2006 ; Allan and Soden 2008 ; Zou and Ren 2015 ). Many studies ( Groisman et al. 2005 ; Min et al. 2011 ) found empirical evidence from observations or model projections showing that a greenhouse-enriched atmosphere may be associated with an increased probability of intense precipitation events. More

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