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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

oceans, and those of land rain gauges and soundings ( Adler et al. 2003 ). Anomalies are calculated by removing the monthly climatologies, and the long-term linear trend is removed via a least squares fit in all observational and reanalysis data and model results. 3. Model and experiment design We use the version 2 of the Scale Interaction Experiment Frontier (SINTEX-F2) coupled model ( Masson et al. 2012 ). The atmospheric component is ECHAM 5.3, which has a horizontal resolution of T106 with 31

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

, the reduced roughness alone may also increase surface pressure and subsidence through land–atmosphere interactions. Although the enhanced wind speed might mitigate this effect, the net effect is a decrease in evapotranspiration ( Maloney 1998 ). These two nonradiative processes contribute to changes in the water and energy budgets, resulting in a positive temperature response. Conversely, radiative processes reduce the net incoming radiation (through the increase in surface albedo) to produce a

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

; Miura et al. 2007 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ; Birch et al. 2016 ) and atmosphere–ocean coupling ( Zhu et al. 2010 ). The present study uses the newly developed ECHAM5-SIT model (described in section 2 ), one of the few GCMs that realistically simulate the MJO ( Tseng et al. 2015 ; Jiang et al. 2015 ), to address this unresolved concern. Three experiments are conducted to delineate the relative effects of land–sea contrast and orography in the MC on the MJO and address the following questions: 1) How

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

difficulty in modeling the interscale interactions between intraseasonal variability and diurnally forced mesoscale variability such as the sea-breeze circulation and mountain/valley winds. The diurnal cycle exerts a dominating influence on the MC. The diurnal precipitation cycle in the tropics is controlled by the response to radiative heating and the periodic organization of convection both onshore and offshore by mesoscale phenomena such as the sea-breeze circulation, land/valley breezes, and diurnal

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

heat and moisture, but also to a distinct interaction between microphysics and the deep convection scheme. Tests using a different microphysics scheme (Thompson) did not prove superior in terms of precipitation and showed a similar cloud structure (not shown). 4. Summary and discussion In this study, we quantified the effects of resolution and convective representation in simulating rainfall features and the vertical structure of the atmosphere in the Maritime Continent. In general, increasing

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Chidong Zhang and Jian Ling

study. To fill the gaps, we propose that the following research topics be pursued to advance our understanding of the barrier effect of the MC: Interactions of convective systems over the sea and land of the MC under different large-scale condition: It is unknown how much of the MJO-C convection development over the sea is related to offshore propagation of convection initiated over land ( Houze et al. 1981 ; Mori et al. 2004 ; Keenan and Carbone 2008 ) and how much is initiated over the water

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

envelope of MJO events as “building blocks” ( Nakazawa 1988 ; Majda et al. 2004 ; Mapes et al. 2006 ; Gottschalck et al. 2013 ) or become active as an independent mode ( Dunkerton and Crum 1995 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ). Significant ocean–atmosphere interactions can occur during the passage of the KWs ( Baranowski et al. 2016a ). The KWs can significantly modulate the tropical convection on synoptic scales (e.g., Takayabu 1991 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Wheeler et al. 2000 ; Wang and Fu

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Yan Zhu, Tim Li, Ming Zhao, and Tomoe Nasuno

forced diurnal variation (e.g., over land and ocean in the MC), HFW, and MJO. The discovery of two-way interaction between MJO and HFW may shed some light on improving the MJO simulations over the Maritime Continent in climate models. It has been shown that multiscale variabilities, ranging from diurnal cycle and high-frequency tropical waves to MJO and interannual time scales, are very active over the Maritime Continent. Scale interactions among these motions may have a profound impact on MJO

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Ching-Shu Hung and Chung-Hsiung Sui

processes. The reevaporation of nonprecipitating shallow convection confined by the large-scale downward motion over the central Indian Ocean ( Tseng et al. 2015 ), along with the enhanced radiative cooling ( Stephens et al. 2004 ), destabilizes local atmosphere. At the same time, the suppressed-heating-induced large-scale circulation produces two moistening sources: moist advection by anomalous easterlies and boundary layer moisture convergence in the anomalous easterlies through its interaction with

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See Yee Lim, Charline Marzin, Prince Xavier, Chih-Pei Chang, and Bertrand Timbal

certain phases of the MJO, they did not analyze the convection associated with the MJO outside of the immediate land areas surrounding the South China Sea. Furthermore, there were significant difficulties in using their proxy data to study the interaction mechanisms between cold surges and MJO in the most important fields: those of the deep convection and heavy rainfall. Thus, some key processes of the coupled dynamic and thermodynamic interactions could not be elucidated. Here we are proposing to use

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