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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme’s Integrated Land Ecosystem–Atmosphere Processes Study and International Global Atmospheric Chemistry and the World Climate Research Programme’s Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment. ACPC was first developed in 2007 and focuses on understanding and reducing the uncertainties associated with aerosol–cloud interactions ( Rosenfeld et al. 2014 ; www.acpcinitiative.org ). Within ACPC, a model intercomparison project (MIP) was organized in order to assess the

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Wojciech W. Grabowski

-type simulations targeting aerosol effects are those of Tao et al. (2007) and references therein, Morrison and Grabowski (2011) , and Grabowski and Morrison (2016 ; hereinafter GM16 ). Using a novel modeling methodology referred to as “piggybacking” applied to the case of daytime convective development over land based on observations during the Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere (LBA) field project in Amazonia, GM16 show that simulated differences between pristine (PRI) and polluted (POL) clouds come

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

is seen for WBM clouds than for CBM clouds. This is presumably because more latent heat is released in WBM clouds as more water cloud droplets are converted into ice crystals. This release of extra energy helps clouds develop higher into the atmosphere. If CTT and CTK are considered as proxies for the strength of convection, it is not surprising to see that convection is stronger over land than over ocean. Not only are the CTH and CTK over land larger than those over oceans, the relative changes

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

focus for this type of cloud is on aerosol impacts on cloud organization. Over the land, aerosols may impact the transition of shallow cumuli to deep convective clouds through modifying surface heating and entrainment processes. However, the impact is complicated by land surface processes and land–atmosphere interactions. Over the ocean, aerosols may enhance the transition from open to closed cells, which could increase the cloud radiative effect by more than 100 W m −2 over the Southern Ocean

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Yan Yang, Jiwen Fan, L. Ruby Leung, Chun Zhao, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld

. 2007 ; Yang and Gong 2010 ; Yang et al. 2013a , b ). The long-term reduction trend has been attributed to anthropogenic aerosols upwind of the mountains that suppress rain by reducing droplet size that leads to less efficient conversion of droplets to raindrops (e.g., Givati and Rosenfeld 2004 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2007 ; Zubler et al. 2011 ). Aerosols can alter clouds and precipitation through both aerosol–radiation interaction (ARI) and aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI), which currently

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

. , K. E. Mitchell , Y. Lin , E. Rogers , P. Grunmann , V. Koren , G. Gayno , and J. D. Tarpley , 2003 : Implementation of Noah land surface model advances in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational mesoscale Eta model . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 8851 , doi: 10.1029/2002JD003296 . Evan , A. T. , G. R. Foltz , D. Zhang , and D. J. Vimont , 2011a : Influence of African dust on ocean–atmosphere variability in the tropical Atlantic . Nat. Geosci

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Andrew R. Jongeward, Zhanqing Li, Hao He, and Xiaoxiong Xiong

) are used presently to show the lower atmosphere climatological circulation. 3. Analyses and results a. Methods of analysis The geographical region selected for this work is the North Atlantic oceanic region (30°–50°N, 80°–40°W). This region is selected because oceanic AOD retrievals from space suffer smaller uncertainties than land ( Levy et al. 2009 ) and the region is downwind of major continental sources of aerosol as shown in Fig. 1 . Two overlapping time periods are examined: July 2002

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

invigoration of updrafts in the lower atmosphere (below 4 km). Also note that the cold pools exist just below the DCC (the peaks of the cooling rates in Fig. 7b ), corresponding to the evaporative cooling induced by precipitation. Those cold pools are important for cloud maintenance ( Tao et al. 2007 ; Grant and van den Heever 2015 ). For the DCC case, the cold pools are insensitive to aerosols, suggesting that the aerosol–cold pool interaction is not a key factor controlling the DCC characteristics in

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Tianmeng Chen, Jianping Guo, Zhanqing Li, Chuanfeng Zhao, Huan Liu, Maureen Cribb, Fu Wang, and Jing He

1. Introduction Aerosols can play an important role in Earth’s climate by altering the energy and water cycles ( Ramanathan et al. 2001 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2014 ). Various effects have been proposed that are now broadly referred to as the aerosol–radiation interactions (ARI) and aerosol–cloud–interactions (ACI) ( IPCC 2013 ). The mechanisms for ARI have been much better understood than ACI, even though very large uncertainties still exist in the former chiefly owing to a poor knowledge of the

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

anthropogenic activity, and aerosol–cloud interactions resulting from these emissions have the potential to alter the growth of clouds and precipitation. In one modeling study, an increase in precipitation downwind of Houston, Texas, was attributed to local meteorological feedbacks (e.g., land-use change causing an enhanced sea breeze) over increased urban aerosol concentrations ( Carrió et al. 2010 ). However, other studies have demonstrated that urban aerosols can increase downwind precipitation through

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