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Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

parameterizations are required for studying hail physics and aerosol effects on hail using model simulations ( Loftus and Cotton 2014a ; Ilotoviz et al. 2016 ). For aerosol–cloud interactions, typical bulk microphysical parameterizations have substantial limitations in their ability to simulate aerosol impacts on convective intensity, as documented in several studies ( Lebo et al. 2012 ; Khain et al. 2015 ; Fan et al. 2016 ). The objective of this study is to investigate how urbanization-induced land and

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Alan Shapiro, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Joshua G. Gebauer

:// . 10.1175/2010MWR3422.1 McPherson , R. A. , 2007 : A review of vegetation-atmosphere interactions and their influences on mesoscale phenomena . Prog. Phys. Geogr. , 31 , 261 – 285 , . 10.1177/0309133307079055 Means , L. L. , 1952 : On thunderstorm forecasting in the central United States . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 80 , 165 – 189 ,<0165:OTFITC>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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David B. Parsons, Kevin R. Haghi, Kelton T. Halbert, Blake Elmer, and Junhong Wang

1. Introduction Haghi et al. (2017) recently showed that as the night progresses in the warm season over the Southern Great Plains, the interaction between convectively generated cold pools and the lower troposphere typically lies within a partially blocked flow regime, where bores will be generated. This study seeks to investigate the potential role of these bores in the initiation and maintenance of nocturnal convection. While high-resolution convection-permitting models show some promise

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Shushi Zhang, David B. Parsons, and Yuan Wang

and Roberts 2006 ; Koch et al. 2008a , b ; Tanamachi et al. 2008 ; Martin and Johnson 2008 ; Hartung et al. 2010 ; Marsham et al. 2011 ; Blake et al. 2017 ). These results are expected as Haghi et al. (2017) revealed that the interaction between the convectively generated cold pools and the SBL over this region typically resides in a partially blocked flow regime where bores will be generated ( Rottman and Simpson 1989 ). These bores will be long lived as the wave energy is typically

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