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Randy A. Peppler

the natural world that values the meaning of activities and occurrences in the world. Cajete (2001) cautions, though, that it is necessary to move beyond the valorization and patronization of indigenous knowledge because these “inadvertently can lead to the marginalization of the most profound indigenous epistemologies regarding interaction of human beings and nature” (p. 637). Agrawal (1995) provides a useful postscript to this discussion, believing strongly that we need to move beyond the

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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

for some countries and regions, for example, Australia ( Mondragón 2014 ; http://www.bom.gov.au/iwk/ ; https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/Environment/Land-management/Indigenous/Indigenous-calendars ), there remain significant gaps in where these calendars occur and in the level of detail provided. Differences between calendars can include the number of seasons into which the year is divided and the plants and animals used to mark the change of seasons. National Meteorological Services (NMSs) in

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

). Independent of evidence from remote sensing, climate research had already demonstrated that large-scale drying could be explained by factors external to the region, namely, changes in the surface temperature of the global oceans ( Folland et al. 1986 ), with no need to invoke regional-scale land degradation and its interaction with atmospheric dynamics as originally envisaged. More recent research has confirmed the dominant role of global sea surface temperature patterns in driving the twentieth

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Susan A. Crate

.” Access to media accounts depicting wars, environmental catastrophes, journeys into outer space, and other ways that humans are altering the atmosphere and beyond show them these power relations. Global climate change, with its various unprecedented environmental changes, was for Viliui Sakha most pronounced in the altered water regimes resulting from the phenomena. 3) Why, how, and to what degree do weaker actors resist stronger actors? The main resistance to the changes in land tenure was during the

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Karen Pennesi

their predictions. An essential component of this tradition, as will be discussed below, is that there must be some personal connection between the rain prophet and the land, either through experience or by learning from someone with such experience. Many rain prophets are farmers but some in Quixadá, where fieldwork was conducted, have other occupations, including a dentist, an accountant, a teacher, and a restaurant owner. Rain prophets are consulted during day-to-day interactions in their

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Randy A. Peppler

help establish historical context ( Peppler 2010 , 2017 ). Members of the Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, Wichita, and Delaware tribes and nations of southwestern Oklahoma were collaborators in the fieldwork, as was a member of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation of eastern Oklahoma. Fieldwork focused mostly on agriculturalists because they are people who work on the land, and as such must be keen observers of weather and seasonal climate and their indicators to help ensure their livelihoods. While the

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