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Celeste Saulo, Lorena Ferreira, Julia Nogués-Paegle, Marcelo Seluchi, and Juan Ruiz

1. Introduction The crucial role of land–atmosphere feedbacks on climate has long been recognized in the climate modeling community. Nevertheless, large uncertainties in the representation of surface processes continue to lead to poor understanding of land–atmosphere interactions. More recent, significant improvements of land surface process modeling have been made. These improvements are related to development of more sophisticated land surface models that, combined with available observations

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Matthew J. Haugland and Kenneth C. Crawford

1. Introduction The interaction between the land and the atmosphere has become a subject of great interest and speculation. The interaction has been modeled and observed by many, but relatively little is known about the complex and nonlinear relationship between land surface features and the atmosphere ( André et al. 1990 ; Pielke et al. 1991 ). Previous studies of land–atmosphere interactions have been limited by a lack of long-term, high quality mesoscale data. The purpose of this manuscript

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Teddy R. Holt, Dev Niyogi, Fei Chen, Kevin Manning, Margaret A. LeMone, and Aneela Qureshi

1. Introduction The effect of land–vegetative processes and the corresponding dynamical impact on land–atmosphere interactions is investigated for simulations of the 24–25 May mesoscale convection event that was observed during the International H 2 O Project (IHOP_2002) field experiment ( Weckwerth et al. 2004 ). Land–vegetative processes, as driven by features such as surface heterogeneity ( Pielke 2001 ) or soil moisture gradients ( Zhang and Anthes 1982 ; Segal et al. 1989 ; Chang and

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Gokhan Kirkil, Jeff Mirocha, Elie Bou-Zeid, Fotini Katopodes Chow, and Branko Kosović

1. Introduction The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the lowest layer of the earth’s atmosphere through which exchanges of momentum, energy, and other chemical species with the surface are transported vertically, via turbulent motions, on a time scale that is rapid in comparison with exchanges within the free atmosphere above (e.g., Stull 1988 ). As such, the ABL plays a critical role in both the evolution of flow near the surface, and in the evolution of larger-scale weather phenomena as

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D. Giard and E. Bazile

variables also acted to prevent long-term drifts with respect to the annual cycle inside the data assimilation procedure. In the meantime, a new land surface parameterization was developed at Météo-France, the so-called Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA) scheme ( Noilhan and Planton 1989 ; Noilhan and Mahfouf 1996 ). It has been extensively tested against field experiments (see Noilhan and Mahfouf 1996 for a short review) and behaves reasonably well in international comparison projects, as

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Yu-Heng Tseng, Shou-Hung Chien, Jiming Jin, and Norman L. Miller

moisture flux into the atmosphere, which with warming can also contain more water vapor. Figure 11 shows the comparison between the WRF-CLM and the I-RMS in terms of moisture flux and mixing ratio due to the 0.6°C enhancement of SSTs at 1200 LST 14 April. The moisture flux and water vapor play an important role in modulating the nearshore dynamics of the air–land–sea interactions. The prevailing UFW dominates during this time period and a strong sea breeze also occurs in Monterey Bay. During the UFW

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Y. Xue, F. J. Zeng, K. E. Mitchell, Z. Janjic, and E. Rogers

features in the sea–atmosphere interactions in different oceans are identified, a substantial effort needs to be made to identify the specifics of the mechanisms and influence of the land surface processes in different parts of the world. During the past decade, using coupled atmosphere–biosphere models, various studies have explored the effects of surface hydrology–atmosphere interactions over different continents. For example, research using the Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies's general

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J. I. Virmani and R. H. Weisberg

influenced by land. The NCEP reanalysis field is the product of a coupled ocean–atmosphere model with data assimilation ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). Given the paucity of available data over the coastal oceans, it is not surprising that the NCEP reanalysis over the WFS is biased toward land measurements. Additionally, the large grid spacing of the reanalysis does not allow it to capture true variations over coastal ocean regions, which poses a problem for coastal ocean–atmosphere models. 4. Weatherpak

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Qingfang Jiang, Shouping Wang, and Larry O’Neill

1999 ; Haack and Burk 2001 ). This study is motivated by a recently completed field campaign, the Variability of the American Monsoon System (VAMOS) Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS). One of the primary VOCALS objectives is to understand the SEP regional climate associated with the coupling between the upper ocean, the land, and the atmosphere ( Woods et al. 2007 ). VOCALS comprises two components: the modeling component (VOCALS-Mod), and the regional experiment component (VOCALS

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P. Shrestha, M. Sulis, M. Masbou, S. Kollet, and C. Simmer

1. Introduction The evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is directly influenced by the spatial patterns of mass and energy fluxes from and to the land surface. Therefore, the parameterizations of land surface fluxes in atmospheric models are crucial to improving our understanding and modeling of land–atmosphere interactions, which will ultimately lead to better hydrologic predictions (e.g., Betts et al. 1996 ; Avissar and Pielke 1989 ; Chen and Avissar 1994 ; Sellers et al

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