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Edward N. Rappaport

–Simpson hurricane scale; Simpson (1974) ]. All but one tropical cyclone (Erika) formed in the western part of the hurricane basin at relatively high latitudes, 22°–32°N ( Fig. 1 ). In contrast, 11 of the 13 tropical cyclones in 1996 formed south of 22°N. Most of 1997 systems originated in association with low-level frontal boundaries or upper-level disturbances. In general, these systems were rather short lived and weak, encountering strong vertical wind shear and rather cool waters after just a few days

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Edward W. Ferguson, Frederick P. Ostby, and Preston W. Leftwich Jr.

distribution of tornadoes in 1986. Total summed over statesgives 771 because of "border crossers." Numbers in parentheses are tornadodeaths. This dearth of activity resulted from a prevailingupper flow that steered most storm systems along theU.S./Canadian border. This type pattern fails to transport needed low level moisture northward from theGulf of Mexico. As a result, much of the central partof the nation experienced abnormally warm, but excessively dry, conditions during the month.b. February

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, Eric S. Blake, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Richard J. Pasch, Jamie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart

; likely 45–90-m elevation) located 37 n mi east of the center reported a southeast wind of 60 kt at 1700 UTC 5 July. In addition, fixed oil platform South Timbalier (ST-308; 45-m elevation) reported a northwesterly wind gust of 87 kt at around 1800 UTC 5 July. Tropical-storm-force winds were reported at New Orleans Lakefront Airport from 0400 to 0930 UTC 6 July, and tropical storm conditions were reported at other stations along the northern Gulf Coast. Real-time SFMR data obtained from the NOAA WP-3D

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James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven II, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Eric S. Blake

the affected areas. Tornado counts are based on reports provided by the WFOs. Hard copies of these various reports are archived at the NHC. Although specific dates and times in these summaries are given in coordinated universal time (UTC), local time is implied whenever general expressions such as “afternoon,” “midday,” etc. are used. a. Hurricane Alex: 31 July–6 August Alex brought category 1 hurricane conditions to the North Carolina Outer Banks as its center passed just offshore, and later

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Michael J. Brennan, Richard D. Knabb, Michelle Mainelli, and Todd B. Kimberlain

both Nicaragua and Honduras. Monetary damage figures are not available. Wind and high surf caused minor damage on Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao, while wind and lightning caused minor damage on St. Vincent and the Grenadines. g. Tropical Storm Gabrielle The genesis of Gabrielle can be traced to a low pressure area that formed along the coast of Georgia on 3 September. This low developed along a frontal boundary that moved off the southeastern coast of the United States on 1 September. After forming

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James L. Franklin and Daniel P. Brown

, were felt elsewhere in the basin. Alberto affected western Cuba, and Ernesto produced heavy rainfall in portions of Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic, with five deaths resulting from Ernesto’s rains in Haiti. Florence brought hurricane conditions to Bermuda, and after losing tropical characteristics also brought hurricane-force winds to portions of Newfoundland. Gordon was the first hurricane to affect the Azores since 1991. The lack of hurricane landfalls on the North American continent in

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John A. Augustine and Kenneth W. Howard

conditions for convection existed during1985, mean patterns of the divergence of Q vectors(Hoskins et al., 1978), temperature advection, moisture, and lapse rates, were compared with those of1984--a relatively inactive year. With routines developed by Barnes (1985), the quasi-geostrophic (QG)equation, as formulated by Hoskins et al. (1978), (Hoskins and Pedder, 1980), was used to diagnose the divergence of Q over the central United States. This parameter, together with stability information, are usedto

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Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

hurricane conditions to portions of North Carolina and Virginia and record flood levels to the upper Chesapeake Bay. Elsewhere, Erika made landfall on the northeastern Mexico’s Gulf Coast as a category-1 hurricane, Fabian was the most destructive hurricane to hit Bermuda in over 75 yr, and Juan was the worst hurricane to hit Halifax, Nova Scotia, in over 100 yr. This season’s tropical cyclones took 49 lives in the Atlantic basin, including 25 in the United States. Total damage in the United States is

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James L. Franklin, Lixion A. Avila, Jack L. Beven, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

that affected land were significantly weakened by hostile environmental conditions prior to landfall. There were no hurricane landfalls in the continental United States, but both Gordon and Helene came ashore in northern Florida as tropical storms. Only twice before (in 1951 and 1990) have there been as many as eight hurricanes in a season with no U.S. hurricane landfalls. Total U.S. damage for the season is estimated to be a modest $27 million. However, this does not include roughly $950 million

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Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, and John L. Guiney

to preclude much strengthening of Danielle. However, aircraft data indicated that a second 90-kt intensity peak occurred around 1200 UTC on 27 August. For the next few days, some weakening took place even though the eyewall structure was generally maintained and atmospheric conditions seemed to be favorable for intensification. By 30 August, Danielle was barely a hurricane. Movement over waters cooled by the earlier passage of Hurricane Bonnie may have contributed to the weakening. From the time

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