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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

account using ice drift derived from AMSR-E. This heat and salt flux dataset will be useful for the validation and boundary conditions of modeling studies. The heat and salt flux dataset created in this study is archived at the website of the Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University ( http://wwwod.lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp/polar-seaflux ). The air–ocean heat flux in the sea ice zone is provided as a component in some global meteorological datasets. However, the treatment of sea ice is not

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Matthew R. Mazloff

.). The governing equations are stepped forward with a 900-s time step. An atmospheric boundary layer scheme is employed where fluxes of heat, freshwater (salt), and momentum are determined by bulk formulas ( Large and Pond 1981 ). The atmospheric state is optimized using the adjoint method and is constrained to be consistent with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)–National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). Similarly, the initial conditions

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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

; Gulev et al. 2007 ; M. Bourassa et al. 2011, personal communication). This situation decreases the quality of meteorological state variables estimated by numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and degrades the accuracy of bulk formulas, which are difficult to test and tune in a data-sparse region with such extreme conditions, high spatial variability, and large seasonal cycle. Accurate estimates of ocean surface flux components with high spatial and temporal resolution are necessary not only for

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

conducted using reanalyses that have led to an improved understanding of high-latitude teleconnection patterns (e.g., Thompson and Wallace 1998 ; Hurrell et al. 2001 ; Genthon et al. 2003 ; Monaghan and Bromwich 2008 ) and the identification of prevailing atmospheric conditions during recent, dramatic reductions in Arctic perennial sea ice cover ( Ogi and Wallace 2007 ). Reanalyses are also used as first-order validation for climate models and provide necessary boundary forcing conditions for ocean

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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

–Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis II (hereafter NCEP2; Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ) are used. NCEP2 surface products are gridded on 1.875° resolution and are available from 1979 to the present. b. Mean SHF Figure 2 shows the global 30-yr mean SHF patterns in two seasons, the boreal winter season from December to February (DJF) and the austral winter season from June to August (JJA). During the boreal wintertime, SHF has the maximum intensity along the pathways of the western boundary currents (WBCs) and

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

reduction (e.g., Porter et al. 2010 ). As noted in Cullather and Bosilovich (2011) , numerical reanalyses are widely used in polar research for evaluating polar processes, as boundary conditions for limited area atmosphere and ocean–sea ice models and as a first-order validation for climate models. However, reanalyses inevitably contain inaccuracies resulting from limitations in the observing system, inconsistencies between observing methods, and incomplete knowledge of the physical processes that are

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

Reanalysis Downscaling at 10 km (CARD10) produced for the California current region with some improvement in the boundary conditions and model physics ( Yoshimura and Kanamitsu 2009 ; Kanamitsu et al. 2010 ). Small-scale features are generated by forcing a high-resolution regional atmospheric model with large-scale NCEP–NCAR reanalysis fields on the domain boundaries. For the California downscaling CARD10, daily SSTs from ECMWF reanalysis (1° × 1°) were used ( Fiorino 2004 ; Kanamitsu and Kanamaru 2007

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