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Christopher A. Davis, Barbara G. Brown, Randy Bullock, and John Halley-Gotway

consider are (a) centroid distance separation, (b) minimum separation distance of object boundaries, (c) orientation angle difference, (d) area ratio, and (e) intersection area. The orientation angle is the angle that the long axis of the object makes with respect to the grid direction (i.e., the x direction, which is nearly east–west in the present study). The area ratio is the area of the smaller of the two objects divided by the area of the larger; hence, it is forced to lie between 0 and 1. The

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Christian Keil and George C. Craig

different synoptic weather conditions. It should be noted that, as with any verification measure, the results will also be influenced by the properties of the fields being matched, such as an intensity threshold for removing background values. For any feature in the observation field, we can ask how well it is forecast (if at all) in terms of amplitude and location. To do this, the image-matching algorithm is used to deform the forecast field to match the observations. Two fields are constructed: a

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Valliappa Lakshmanan and John S. Kain

. (2005) ) core with 4-km grid spacing and 35 vertical levels. The 2CAPS was produced at the Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms at the University of Oklahoma (also using the ARW core) with 2-km grid spacing and 51 vertical levels. All three forecast systems used initial and lateral boundary conditions from the North American Model ( Rogers et al. 2009 ). The observations are from the stage II rainfall accumulation dataset produced by NCEP ( Baldwin and Mitchell 1998 ). The 1 June case

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