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Rui-Jin Hu and J. Stuart Godfrey

the way water colder than minimum SST joins the southward Ekman transport in the real Indian Ocean. In this paper, five of the most obvious limitations of the model of Part I are addressed—unrealistic basin shape, annual mean wind stress, and surface heat boundary conditions, plus lack of seasonality of stress and of heat fluxes. In the first experiment of the present paper, the idealized basin shape and wind stresses of Part I were replaced with (a reasonable approximation to) the observed

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J. Stuart Godfrey, Rui-Jin Hu, Andreas Schiller, and R. Fiedler

-depth principle. 2. The idealized model a. Basin shape, winds, architecture, and initial conditions The idealized ocean basin ( Fig. 2 ) is rectangular with meridional walls 50° longitude apart. All boundaries are vertical and the bottom is flat, allowing the use of linear mode theory (e.g., Gill 1982 ) to analyze flow behavior (until flows become fast enough for nonlinearities to occur). There is a northern boundary at a latitude y N = 10°N, roughly the latitude where upwelling occurs off Somalia and

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Tommy G. Jensen

). Atmospheric Science Paper 670, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 50 pp . Jensen , T. G. , 1998b : Open boundary conditions in stratified ocean models. J. Mar. Syst. , 16 , 297 – 322 . Jensen , T. G. , 2001a : Application of the GWR method to the tropical Indian Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129 , 470 – 485 . Jensen , T. G. , 2001b : Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal exchange of salt and tracers in an ocean model. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 3967 – 3970 . Jensen , T. G. , 2003a

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Roxana C. Wajsowicz

Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Coupled Forecast System (CFS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) system. There are two types of climate prediction problem ( Lorenz 1975 ). In the boundary value problem, the task is to assess the change in climate due to some change in external forcing, for example, anthropogenic changes. In the initial value problem considered here, compare with ENSO forecasting, the task is to

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Debasis Sengupta, Retish Senan, B. N. Goswami, and Jérôme Vialard

February and March the pressure force in the upper 200 m is eastward, with a maximum at 100-m depth of about −2.0 × 10 −7 N kg −1 , comparable to that in the equatorial Atlantic or Pacific. The ZPG associated with equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves generated/reflected at lateral boundaries determines ocean adjustment to uniform westerly wind stress. Since eastward jets are surface intensified, it has been argued that these waves must have a vertical structure resembling the second baroclinic mode

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R. J. Murray, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, and C. J. C. Reason

simulations (experiments 5 and 6) were conducted using low- and high-frequency components of the forcing fields of experiment 4. The purpose of these experiments was to test whether subduction occurs preferentially during years of extreme forcing, in which case epoch-averaged or time-smoothed boundary conditions would not be effective in producing interior water masses of the right properties. The low-pass-filtered forcings were obtained by time-smoothing the interannual series of each forcing field using

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J. C. Hermes, C. J. C. Reason, and J. R. E. Lutjeharms

R. M. Chervin , 1992 : Ocean general circulation from a global eddy-resolving model. J. Geophys. Res. , 97 , 5493 – 5550 . Stammer , D. , R. Tokmakian , A. Semtner , and C. Wunsch , 1996 : How well does a 1/4° global circulation model simulate large-scale oceanic observations? J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 25779 – 25811 . Stevens , D. P. , 1991 : The open boundary conditions in the United Kingdom Fine-Resolution Antarctic Model. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 21 , 1494 – 1499

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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

mixed layer is predicted using the K-profile parameterization ( Large et al. 1994 ). The eddy mixing parameterization of Gent and McWilliams (1990) as implemented by Griffies (1998) is used in the model. The atmosphere component is the GFDL atmosphere model AM2p12b ( GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team 2004 ). The model has a finite-volume dynamical core, with 24 vertical layers and 2.5° × 2° horizontal spacing. A K-profile planetary boundary layer scheme, relaxed Arakawa

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Clémentde Boyer Montégut, Jérôme Vialard, S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, Fabien Durand, Christian Ethé, and Gurvan Madec

significant contribution from cloud cover and solar radiation in SST anomalies in the northern Indian Ocean. However, sensitivity experiments have been performed with our model on a 2° × 2° horizontal resolution grid that showed a weak impact by cloud cover and air humidity on interannual variability (differences are about 0.1°C or less on the basin scale between the two experiments; not shown). In-depth work on careful specification of the surface boundary layer conditions is thus needed to better

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Bohua Huang and J. Shukla

the uncoupled portion of the global domain is given by the AGCM flux plus a relaxation term to the prescribed SST with a rate of 30 W m −2 °C −1 of the difference between the prescribed and model SST. The freshwater flux is given from the AGCM output without any modification. It should be pointed out here that, although observational data are used as boundary conditions for both OGCM and AGCM in their uncoupled interface, the prescribed SST forcing to the AGCM is much more crucial because it

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