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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

simulations. HLCL clearly shows a strong land–ocean contrast, especially for AIRS and the MMF. Maritime conditions tend to have a significantly shallower HLCL because of the dominance of surface turbulent latent heat fluxes, while HLCL values are much deeper over land because of the dominance of turbulent sensible heat fluxes. The MMF has a higher frequency of very deep HLCLs over land than does NICAM. This suggests that NICAM is characterized with moister boundary layer conditions than the MMF over land

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

spacing), which forces fine-resolution two-dimensional (2D) GCE models with a cloud-resolving scale grid configuration (4-km horizontal grid spacing). The GCE explicitly simulates cloud dynamics and microphysics processes every 10 s, and the mean profiles of the GCE meteorological fields and hydrometeors feed back to the GEOS-4 grid every hour. For computational efficiency, the GCE is configured in a 2D grid (64 × 1 horizontal and 41 vertical) using a cycling boundary condition. In this way, numerous

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

retrieves snowfall rates from the CPR reflectivity observations via an optimal estimation approach to derive dynamic radar reflectivity Z e to snowfall rate S relationships ( Wood et al. 2013 ). The 2C-SNOW-PROFILE algorithm leverages the 2C-PRECIP-COLUMN product and automatically generates snowfall rate estimates when 2C-PRECIP-COLUMN indicates near-surface “snow possible” or “snow certain” conditions [e.g., see Haynes et al. (2009) , ( 2013 ) for further details]. The near-surface bin is defined

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

continents [ Gimeno et al. (2014) , and references therein]. Often they are associated with extreme precipitation, which can lead to flooding (e.g., Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ; Lavers and Villarini 2013 ) but can also alleviate or “bust” ongoing drought conditions ( Dettinger 2013 ). The important hydrological effects of ARs have been widely documented in the semiarid western United States. About 30%–50% of annual precipitation in this region fell during ARs over the period of water years

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