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Andrew Tangborn, Robert Cooper, Steven Pawson, and Zhibin Sun

in section 7 . 2. Transport model and observing system We define the transport model as the solution to the linear two-dimensional convection–diffusion equations where c is the mixing ratio, ( u , υ ) are the ( x , y ) components of velocity, α is the diffusivity, S is the rate of production of c , and L is the loss rate frequency of c . We treat this system as nondimensional, so all the variables are unitless. The boundary conditions are periodic in x and y , and the domain is of

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Seung-Jong Baek, Istvan Szunyogh, Brian R. Hunt, and Edward Ott

specification of the boundary conditions. Although some of these sources are completely independent, it is not feasible to identify and parameterize each of them independently. One way to account for model bias, first suggested by Derber (1989) , is to assume that the total effect of all sources of the bias in the forecast model can be represented by a limited number of bulk error terms. The amplitude of the bulk error terms is specified by parameters, which are then estimated as part of the data

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