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Howard J. Diamond, Andrew M. Lorrey, and James A. Renwick

further noted that southwest Pacific TCs encounter baroclinic westerlies earlier in their existence than in other basins and, as such, begin the EET between 25° and 35°S. Sinclair further found that during La Niña conditions average storm motion was slower and more meridional in nature and ETT was confined to the area west of 170°W. During El Niño conditions, ETT occurred much faster and along a much wider range from 160°E to 130°W. Kuleshov et al. (2008) used the Australian Bureau of Meteorology TC

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Steven J. Phipps, Helen V. McGregor, Joëlle Gergis, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Raphael Neukom, Samantha Stevenson, Duncan Ackerley, Josephine R. Brown, Matt J. Fischer, and Tas D. van Ommen

simulations. The model was first initialized from a preindustrial control simulation and was then run to equilibrium under permanent 1 CE boundary conditions. The individual members of ensembles O, OG, and OGS were initialized from different years of this simulation and run for 2000 years. The members of ensemble OGSV were initialized from the state of each member of ensemble OGS at the end of year 500 CE; they could not be initialized earlier, as the volcanic forcing dataset used to drive the model only

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Michelle Ho, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Anthony S. Kiem, and Russell N. Drysdale

respectively. Details of the stations located in the case study MDB catchments are shown in Table 1 . Although it is highly unlikely that these subcatchments are climatologically independent (i.e., rainfall variability is not confined to these subcatchment boundaries), the separation into hydrological subcatchments was deliberate. This was done to enable the method developed here to produce inputs suitable for hydrological and environmental impact modeling, which is required at the subcatchment scale

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Tessa R. Vance, Tas D. van Ommen, Mark A. J. Curran, Chris T. Plummer, and Andrew D. Moy

). Brine crystals growing on sea ice (frost flowers) are another source of sea salt aerosols. Frost flower growth requires calm conditions, cold temperatures, and the formation of new sea ice; thus, sea-spray inputs from wind ablation of these structures are primarily significant during early winter ( Rankin et al. 2000 ; Roscoe et al. 2011 ). New sea ice may form in the LD region in March during cold outbreaks, although generally the sea ice growth season in this region is from April onward (R

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