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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Masaki Katsumata, Shuichi Mori, Sinsuke Satoh, Yuki Hirose, and Hiroaki Ueda

1. Introduction The global distribution of precipitation is related to water circulation in the climate system and to latent heating (LH) in the atmosphere, which is an important heat source driving atmospheric circulation ( Nigam et al. 2000 ). Characteristics of precipitation change greatly over a wide spectrum according to precipitation type and surface and atmospheric conditions. Satellite observations of clouds have provided useful but indirect information on precipitation. Precipitation

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Shaocheng Xie, Timothy Hume, Christian Jakob, Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, and Minghua Zhang

analysis on the diurnal cycle of the large-scale structures and diabatic heating and drying profiles with those convective cloud systems that occurred under different surface boundary conditions. The convective systems examined include the intensive monsoon systems of oceanic origin that occurred between 0000 local standard time (LST) 22 January and 2400 LST 25 January during the active monsoon period and the mainland and island-initiated convective systems that were observed between 0000 LST 6

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

from these different perspectives, several methods for estimating latent heating from satellite observations have been developed. Tao et al. (1990) and Smith et al. (1994) used satellite estimates of precipitation vertical structure to infer latent heating rates in discrete atmospheric layers, assuming that the net flux of precipitation into or out of a given layer is balanced by microphysical processes under steady-state conditions. Tao et al. (1993) later simplified their approach by

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Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Nagio Hirota

radiative forcing as a function of ω 500, Yuan et al. (2008) found that the thick high cloud amount strongly increases with increasing upward vertical velocity and that such a relationship hardly changes even when cases are restricted to SST > 28°C. It is consistent with the increase of the deep mode in our analysis. Figure 14 depicts RH profiles stratified against ω 500 for separate SST conditions. In all cases, basic dependency on ω 500 is fairly similar to Fig. 12a . Boundary layers are very

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

network ( Lin and Johnson 1996 ). The Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was conducted in 1974 over the east Atlantic. Cloud systems (nonsquall clusters, a squall line, and scattered convection) for the period 1–8 September 1974 during phase III of GATE have also been simulated using the GCE model ( Li et al. 1999 ; Tao 2003 ). Large-scale GATE forcings from Sui and Yanai (1986) were used to drive the GCE model. The environmental conditions for SCSMEX

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

System (CERES) clouds and radiative swath (CRS) product ( Wielicki et al. 1996 ) offers estimates of Q R that are constrained to match top of the atmosphere (TOA) flux measurements but with reduced temporal sampling, whereas Cloudsat’s level-2B radiative fluxes and heating rates algorithm (2B-FLXHR; L’Ecuyer et al. 2008 ) offers improved cloud boundary information and spatial resolution but at greatly reduced spatial and temporal sampling. All of these algorithms are built on the same basic

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K-M. Lau and H-T. Wu

moistening by shallow boundary layer and congestus are necessary to realistically produce the wide range of tropical temporal and spatial variability, including MJO ( Khouider and Majda 2007 ). Modeling studies have shown that warm-rain processes may play an important role in regulating the time scales of MJO convective cycles through dynamical feedback induced by cloud radiation and latent heating ( Lee et al. 2001 ; Lin and Mapes 2004 ; Lau et al. 2005 ). Using a community climate model, Zhang and

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

GoC (Puerto Peñasco, Bahia Kino, Los Mochis, Loreto, and the R/V Altair ). In the EBA, up to six soundings per day were obtained during IOPs in order to study the diurnal cycle of the flow and convection in the vicinity of the SMO both when significant weather events were occurring and during undisturbed conditions. The launch frequencies for these sites during the interval encompassing the IOPs, 7 July–15 August, are indicated in Fig. 1 . Sounding quality control procedures are described in

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

latent heat and the atmospheric circulation in the free atmosphere, in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and at oceanic surface are fundamental to the wave-conditional instability of the second kind (CISK; Lau and Peng 1987 ), Ekman-CISK ( Wang and Rui 1990 ; Hendon and Salby 1994 ), and wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE; Emanuel 1987 ; Neelin et al. 1987 ) hypotheses to explain the growth rate and phase speed of the MJO. It is suggested that the slow propagation of the MJO could be

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

profiles for four different times during the period of 15 May 15–6 June corresponding to rainy periods (21 May 2008, 25 May 2008, 1 June 2008, and 6 June 2008). These profiles were chosen to be representative of different atmospheric conditions to test whether combinations of the TRMM CSH LUT are able to reproduce the observed LH profiles. A least squares multilinear regression was used to find the coefficients of the linear combination of normalized LH profiles that minimize the root-mean-square error

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