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Wanli Wu, Amanda H. Lynch, Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, A. David McGuire, and Ute Herzfeld

-Eddington approximation ( Briegleb 1992 ) is used for solar radiation in our study. The horizontal domain of the model in this study covers the Western Arctic with a grid size of 50 km consisting of 50 north–south and 80 east–west grid points ( Figure 1 ). It should be noted that the model buffer zone (five model grids on each side of the model domain) was excluded in all figures and all statistical computations. The initial and lateral boundary conditions are provided by the National Centers for Environmental

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J. S. Kimball, M. Zhao, A. D. McGuire, F. A. Heinsch, J. Clein, M. Calef, W. M. Jolly, S. Kang, S. E. Euskirchen, K. C. McDonald, and S. W. Running

; Schimel et al. 1996 ; Shaver and Jonasson 2001 ). These environmental conditions have historically favored net annual uptake of atmospheric CO 2 (positive NEP) and relatively stable soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulations throughout the Holocene, despite large interannual variability in NEP and periodic carbon losses from regional disturbances, including fire and insect defoliations. Previous investigations of northern vegetation activity derived from visible and near-infrared wavelength satellite

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T. Scott Rupp, Xi Chen, Mark Olson, and A. David McGuire

respect to the objective of evaluating driving data with fields developed using three different approaches: 1) an observationally based approach, 2) a data assimilation approach using a climate model, and 3) a regional climate modeling approach forced with only boundary conditions (see Drobot et al. 2006 ; Clein et al. 2006 ). Because the datasets were not on common grids, the datasets were first converted to the Northern Hemisphere 25 km × 25 km Equal-Area Scalable Earth (EASE) grid ( Drobot et al

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Ute C. Herzfeld, Sheldon Drobot, Wanli Wu, Charles Fowler, and James Maslanik

data, which seems unexpected at first, may be explained by the fact the reanalysis data provide lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions for the MM5 model runs, but in subsequent model time steps the physical equations that govern the MM5 model starts to dominate, moving the MM5 model fields away from the reanalysis data fields. In model validation, similarity maps are useful in the identification of areas that are problematic in a model. Investigation of the climate components and

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A. D. McGuire, J. E. Walsh, J. S. Kimball, J. S. Clein, S. E. Euskirchen, S. Drobot, U. C. Herzfeld, J. Maslanik, R. B. Lammers, M. A. Rawlins, C. J. Vorosmarty, T. S. Rupp, W. Wu, and M. Calef

region during the last two decades of the twentieth century. The boundaries of the western Arctic in this study completely encompass the drainage basin of the Yukon River, and the region includes most of Alaska and adjacent areas in northwestern Canada. The region includes two long-term ecological research (LTER) sites: one that is focused on tundra ecosystems (Toolik Lake LTER; Hobbie et al. 1994 ) and another that is focused on boreal forest ecosystems (Bonanza Creek LTER; Chapin et al. 2006

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