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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

thermocline ( section 3 ). Combining the inferred diffusivity with vertical temperature gradients, we directly evaluate subsurface turbulent heat fluxes, which play a first-order role in the near-surface heat budget except in calm conditions ( section 4 ). Overall, we aim to diagnose the feedbacks between turbulence and stratification and the relative roles of solar and turbulent heat fluxes in the development of diurnal warm layers. 2. Instrumentation and deployments SurfOtter is a platform specially

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Kyle Chudler, Weixin Xu, and Steven A. Rutledge

systems. Mapes et al. (2003) proposed a gravity wave mechanism to explain rainfall adjacent to landmasses. They argued that daytime heating over the land expands the boundary layer, causing gravity waves to propagate away from the disturbed region. These gravity waves lead to destabilization over the adjacent waters thereby supporting convection. This was also the mechanism offered by Yokoi et al. (2017) to explain the offshore movement of convection observed near the island of Sumatra during the

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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

contribution to surface KE, from geostrophic to internal wave motions ( Qiu et al. 2017 ). Here too, in some regions such as the Kuroshio and westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC), the geostrophic or rotational modes scaled with an approximate −3 exponent, while the divergent component followed a shallower spectrum. The transition from geostrophic to internal waves was observed to occur at different length scales in distinct latitudinal bands, representing the diverse oceanic conditions found

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

adiabatic lapse rate (green), dry adiabatic lapse rate (brown), moisture (green), environmental temperature profile (black), environmental moisture profile (blue), and parcel trajectory (dashed red) are shown. Properties of the CM1 ensemble of simulations are provided in Table 1 . Within the respective domains, the same model configuration is used, except for variations to the bottom boundary condition (i.e., SST). The bottom boundary conditions for CM1 are prescribed using SST composites from periods

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

convergence changes among the three runs, moisture flux convergence over the northern Luzon western mountain locations during suppressed conditions is stronger and earlier in the elevated topography versus flat runs (not shown). Mechanical uplift is generated on the western slope of the western mountains when onshore flow encounters a boundary (i.e., the mountains) during the 1200 LT bin in the true and doubled topography runs ( Figs. 9 and 10 ). Simultaneously, a thermodynamically driven upslope valley

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

details of the boreal wintertime MJO, and it accurately captures the distribution of convective cell sizes compared to satellite observations, which further suggests it is a viable tool for simulating the convective identity of the MJO ( Riley Dellaripa et al. 2018 ). Details of the simulation parameters are listed in Table 1 , including the grid spacing, microphysical parameterizations, and lateral boundary conditions. Table 1. Simulation parameters. At the beginning of the simulation, the interior

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

campaign in 2018 aboard the R/V Thomas G. Thompson in the Western Pacific. The project focuses on the Propagation of IntraSeasonal Tropical Oscillations (PISTON), which are 20–60-day time scale atmospheric oscillations in outgoing longwave radiation, SST, and precipitation that are influenced by near-surface ocean properties. Here we focus on four consecutive days (4–8 October 2018) with wind speeds of 1–5 m s −1 and strong insolation with daily peaks of 1000 W m −2 . These conditions are conducive

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

km to the right of the track) and BD10 (near the track) employ temperature and salinity initial conditions constructed from the mooring data interpolated in the vertical. Model vertical resolution is 0.25 m, and the time step is 1 h. Surface forcing is based on observed hourly incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, and turbulent fluxes are estimated from hourly moored measurements of air temperature, surface pressure, sea surface temperature, relative humidity, and wind using the COARE 3

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

simulation for the same period with the same boundary conditions (NOAA OI SST and sea ice). b. Observation and reanalysis datasets Daily mean observed winds and humidity for the same period are taken from ERA-Int with a horizontal resolution of 0.75° × 0.75°. Daily mean precipitation estimates are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 1DD, version 1.2 ( Huffman et al. 2001 ), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42, version 7, dataset ( Kummerow et al. 2000

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

how diurnal cycle behavior changes with the BSISO along with the variations in environmental conditions that drive such changes. 4. BSISO modulation of the diurnal cycle a. General impact This section will explore changes in the diurnal cycle associated with the BSISO after first reviewing the general influence of the BSISO on the region of interest. The large-scale structure of the BSISO anomalies in OLR and 850-hPa winds is shown in Fig. 4 , constructed by averaging the anomalies relative to

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