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Ling-Feng Hsiao, Melinda S. Peng, Der-Song Chen, Kang-Ning Huang, and Tien-Chiang Yeh

initial and lateral boundary conditions (more discussion later) for the NFS. A version of NFS was also developed for the prediction of typhoons with a different domain and the inclusion of synthetic data to better represent the initial structure of a typhoon. This special-purpose forecast system runs only when a typhoon is in the vicinity of Taiwan. The TC forecast system using the NFS framework also improves the forecast track skill relative to the CWB typhoon forecast system based on the older

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Changgui Wang, Damian Wilson, Tracy Haack, Peter Clark, Humphrey Lean, and Robert Marshall

to achieve operationally adequate forecasts of propagation conditions. Atkinson et al. (2001) then simulated the propagation environment in the atmosphere boundary layer over the Persian Gulf using a mesoscale model from the Met Office ( Golding 1987 , 1990 ) with a horizontal resolution of 6 km and examined the effects of initializing the model in varying degrees of idealization with the observations taken during the SHAREM-115 experiment ( Brooks and Rogers 2000 ). The existence, location

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Marc Olefs, Andrea Fischer, and Josef Lang

than the gradients of humidity and temperature as droplet speed mostly dominates the synoptic wind and is in the same order of magnitude from one snow gun to the other. Therefore the synoptic wind is not accounted for as a meteorological boundary condition in this study. If we neglect air pressure changes, expansion cooling is not a function of the meteorological boundary conditions. Furthermore, the calculation of the radiation balance is not straightforward: drop albedo is difficult to determine

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Xiaoxue Wang, Yuguo Li, Kai Wang, Xinyan Yang, and Pak Wai Chan

mesoscale surface parameterizations ( Krayenhoff and Voogt 2007 ; Yang and Li 2015 ). Although it is necessary to include the variations in daily surface temperature, the existing CFD models or simulations do not consider the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer ( Blocken and Gualtieri 2012 ). Coupling the existing surface temperature model with CFD models is challenging. The commonly used thermal boundary conditions include constant temperature (Dirichlet boundary condition), constant heat

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M. A. Shapiro and James J. O'Brien

JUNE1970 M. A. SHAPIRO AND JAMES J. O'BRIEN 345Boundary Conditions for Fine-Mesh Limited-Area Forecasts M. A. S~AmRo At~l) J~ES J. O'BR~F~XtNational Center for Atmospheric Research? Boulder, Colo.(Manuscript received 21 October 1969, in revised form 20 February 1970)ABSTRACT A fine-mesh, limited-area, nondivergent barotropic forecast is initialized with fine-scale wind data withtime-variant lateral

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Vijayant Kumar, Gunilla Svensson, A. A. M. Holtslag, Charles Meneveau, and Marc B. Parlange

focus of the majority of the above-mentioned LES studies has been subgrid-scale modeling, analyzing characteristic features of quasi-steady ABLs, and/or performance testing of existing parameterizations. The LES is inherently superior to SCMs in terms of resolving the full three-dimensional structure of the turbulent flow field, but the quality of both LES and SCM results is still heavily dependent on the surface flux boundary conditions and the imposed geostrophic wind. Therefore, to develop LES

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Michael Hantel

752 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY Vo~.u'~l$Polar Boundary Conditions in Zonally Averaged Global Climate Models IYJ[ICtL~EL ~-~NTELMeteoroDgische* Instltut der Univer~ittit Bonn, 53 Bonn, Federal R~In~lic of Germcny(Manuscript received 8 February 1974, in revised form 21 June t974)ABSTRACT We consider global climate models based on zonally averaged balance relations. Inherent boundary

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Jonathan D. Kahl and Perry J. Samson

1024 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME27Uncertainty in Estimating Boundnry-Lnyer Transport during Highly Convective Conditions JONATHAN D. KAHL* AND P~RR- J. SAMSONDepartment of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science. Space Physics Research Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (Manuscript received 31 October 1987, in final form 19 February 1988)ABSTRACT Routine and

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Talmor Meir, Julie Pullen, Alan F. Blumberg, Teddy R. Holt, Paul E. Bieringer, and George Bieberbach Jr.

Research (NCAR). The surface boundary conditions and presence of urban land characteristics are specified as high-density residential land use in the Noah land-surface model ( Liu et al. 2006 ). The NAM forecasting system outputs 3-hourly fields on a 25 × 23 grid. NAM has 39 vertical sigma levels, with 10 levels in the lower 1200 m of the atmosphere. b. Meteorological station data The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory of The City College of New York aggregates meteorological observations at high

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Claire Louise Vincent and Andrea N. Hahmann

. There is an alternative option in the WRF Model to apply nudging only above the time-varying top of the boundary layer. However, because of concerns about nudging being applied close to the surface when the boundary layer height is small during stable conditions, this option was avoided. The nudging coefficient for all nudged fields was: 0 for levels 1–10, 3 × 10 −5 s −1 at level 11, and 3 × 10 −4 s −1 for level 12 to the top of the model at 50 hPa. The third configuration of the WRF Model

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