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C. Nicolis

derivative operator, and λ stands for a set of parameters. In most cases of interest these parameters are entering through phenomenological relations complementing (1) and providing information on quantities not expressible directly in terms of X such as dissipation rates, the effect of unresolved scales, and so forth. It is well known that for Eqs. (1) to constitute a well-posed problem it is necessary to prescribe appropriate initial and boundary conditions: where ∂Ω denotes the boundary of Ω

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Ivo G. S. van Hooijdonk, Herman J. H. Clercx, Cedrick Ansorge, Arnold F. Moene, and Bas J. H. van de Wiel

, it is unlikely that both parameters have the same physical meaning. Consequently, we may ask the following questions: How do these parameters relate to each other? What is their respective physical relevance? And what is their relevance for the SBL? To answer these questions, we perform DNS of the Couette flow with a fixed heat (or, more generally, buoyancy) flux (Neumann) boundary conditions (BCs) imposed at the top and bottom walls. We opt for DNS instead of large-eddy simulation (LES; e.g., as

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A. F. Bennett

176 JOUR. NAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME33Open Boundary Conditions for Dispersive Waves A. F.Geophysics! Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Monaxh University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia (Manuscript received 22 July 1975, in revised form 9 October 1975)AItSTRP~CT Approximate outgoing radiation conditions have been widely used at open boundaries in dispersive wavecomputations

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A. F. Bennett and P. E. Kloeden

990JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCESVOLUME 35Boundary Conditions for Limited-Area ForecastsA. F. BENNETTGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Monash University, Clayton, Vicioria, 3168, AustraliaP. E. KLOEDENSchool of MathemaJical and Physical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6153, Australia(Manuscript received 6 December 1977, in final form 22 February 1978)ABSTRACTThe smo~thness of solutions of the barotropic and barodinic filtered and primitive equations in

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Pallav Ray, Chidong Zhang, Jim Dudhia, and Shuyi S. Chen

rest of the globe are controlled through the boundary conditions, which allow their influences on the MJO initiation to be tested. For example, any signal related to prior MJOs can be filtered from the boundary forcing to see how external influences affect the MJO ( Gustafson and Weare 2004a , b ). But the removal of the MJO frequency alone cannot entirely eliminate the influence of the MJO from the boundary conditions, because the MJO may influence smaller-scale features that are coupled to

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H. Volland and H. G. Mayr

S~:PT~:~mER1972 H. VOLLAND AND H. G. MAYR 1143The l~roblem of the Boundary Conditions in Thermosphere Dynamics H. VO~,L~d~D Astronomical Institutes, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany ^~D H. G. M^-~Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbdt, Md.(Manuscript received 17 January 1972, in revised form 13 April 1972)ABSTRACT The unique solution of tidal wave propagation within the thermosphere depends

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David R. Smith

648 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoL 44, No. 3Effect of Boundary Conditions on Numerically Simulated Tornado-like Vortices DAVID R. SMITHDepartment of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907(Manuscript received 9 October 1985, in final form 29 September 1986) ABSTRAC~ The boundary conditions for Rotunno's numerical model

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Edwin K. Schneider and Meizhu Fan

used in section 4 . In particular, the atmospheric feedbacks to the surface evolution need to include the AGCM ensemble response to the evolution of the land surface and sea ice boundary conditions. Weather noise forcing in the interactive ensemble needs to be included over land and sea ice. Although the quantitative importance of these extensions on the determination of the weather noise over the oceans and the subsequent interactive ensemble SST reconstruction is not known, the land

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Roger Temam and Joseph Tribbia

equations consist of the laws of conservation of horizontal momentum with minor geometrical approximations, but assume that the vertical pressure gradient is in exact hydrostatic balance with the buoyancy force per unit mass. The analysis of Oliger and Sundström shows that the lateral boundary conditions that are not applied mode by mode must either overdetermine some modes or underdetermine the others. In most numerical models, the boundary conditions are applied pointwise in the vertical leading to

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Giuseppe Zappa, Valerio Lucarini, and Antonio Navarra

their properties. A low-frequency wavenumber 5 had been previously observed by Hendon and Hartmann (1985 , hereafter HH ) in a two-level dry primitive equation model with zonally symmetric boundary conditions and forced by Newtonian relaxation. The constant presence of a dominant low-frequency wave 5 in a variety of models and for different boundary conditions suggests that there must be a fundamental atmospheric process leading to its formation. HH proposed a quasigeostrophic (QG) inverse

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