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Audrey Delpech, Claire Ménesguen, Yves Morel, Leif N. Thomas, Frédéric Marin, Sophie Cravatte, and Sylvie Le Gentil

for this study, where T 0 , ω 0 , λ x 0 , k x 0 , and τ 0 / ρ 0 are the period, frequency, zonal wavelength, zonal wavenumber, and amplitude of the forcing [Eq. (2) ]. The experiments are 2D and are either linear (L) or nonlinear (NL). The letter of the experiment label indicates its position on the wavenumber–frequency spectrum ( Fig. 1 ), and the number indicates the forcing amplitude. All lateral boundaries are closed with free slip boundary conditions. A sponge layer is implemented on

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Alain Colin de Verdière and Michel Ollitrault

adequate boundary conditions. Forcing the transports to derive from a streamfunction ensures the nondivergence. A Poisson equation ∇ 2 ψ = ζ then results with ψ as the streamfunction and ζ as a given function of the observed barotropic transports (see section 2 below). The condition of no normal flow on solid boundaries is imposed by forcing the streamfunction to be constant there. In the North Atlantic or North Pacific cases, we set ψ = 0 on all boundaries (neglecting the small exchange at

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Yang Jiao and W. K. Dewar

addition, we are working in the regime of moderate rotation as identified by Arobone and Sarkar (2012) , where 2D instabilities at small scales were dominant. We performed a small number of convergence tests and parameter sensitivity runs using various grids, including some with twice the above resolution, and found our results are robust. The lateral boundary conditions imposed on the model were free slip on all ( x , z ) boundaries, no flux on all ( x , z ) boundaries, no normal flow on the zonal

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W. K. Dewar, J. C. McWilliams, and M. J. Molemaker

ROMS to set the boundary conditions of an embedded implementation of the MITgcm. Choosing the southern boundary of the embedded domain to coincide with the apparent location of the CUC separation, the inflow is well described by the hydrostatic dynamics of the ROMS model. The size of the domain was chosen to capture the area in which unstable potential vorticities were predicted by the ROMS solution. Model resolution was set to 55 m in the horizontal and 5 m in the vertical throughout the jet. The

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Nils Brüggemann and Carsten Eden

channel with periodic boundary conditions in zonal direction and solid walls at the meridional boundaries. Baroclinically unstable conditions are provided by a vertically sheared and stratified background flow that is in thermal wind balance with a constant meridional buoyancy gradient and a constant stratification . The parameters and determine the Richardson number Ri 0 as follows: 1 where f is the Coriolis parameter. We achieve different Ri 0 and thus different dynamical conditions by

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J. H. LaCasce and J. Wang

surface boundary conditions: where b s is the surface buoyancy. Thus, only the SQG solution is directly linked to the surface density. For the bottom boundary condition, W13 demanded that the vertical derivative of both streamfunctions vanish and that the total velocity be zero at the bottom. Alternately, one can simply require that each streamfunction vanish with depth (e.g., Lapeyre and Klein 2006 ; LaCasce and Mahadevan 2006 ; Lapeyre 2009 ): It turns out that using this condition greatly

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Benjamin A. Storer, Francis J. Poulin, and Claire Ménesguen

to two dimensions, greatly simplifying the numerical calculations at the cost of added boundary condition at r = 0. The boundary conditions at the rigid lid and flat bottom is zero buoyancy, which ensures that there is no vertical velocity through the boundaries. Written in terms of the streamfunction, this becomes ∂ z ψ = 0 at z = − L z , 0 ( Nguyen et al. 2012 ). As discussed in Baey and Carton (2002) , the condition at r = 0 is that the pressure anomaly vanishes, ψ = 0, for all

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Thomas Meunier, Enric Pallàs Sanz, Miguel Tenreiro, José Ochoa, Angel Ruiz Angulo, and Christian Buckingham

diapycnal mixing was about two orders of magnitudes smaller under an LCE in deep water than in the direct vicinity of the continental slope, it might still be much larger in the presence of an LCE than in normal interior GoM conditions, far from any topographic boundary. Studying the thermohaline structure and physical origin of layering below LCEs is thus worthwhile, as the latter may constitute a route toward SUW mixing in the interior GoM. By contributing to the erosion of the temperature and

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A. C. Barbosa Aguiar, C. Ménesguen, S. Le Gentil, R. Schopp, and X. Carton

-slip configuration; a free surface with implicit scheme ( Dukowicz and Smith 1994 ); and open radiative lateral boundary conditions. The advection scheme is a third-order upwind scheme for momentum and tracers. In the horizontal, dissipation, and diffusion are implicit because of the advection scheme. Vertical momentum dissipation and tracer diffusivity are both modeled by a biharmonic operator with a coefficient of 3.05 × 10 −5 m 4 s −1 , for a vertical grid spacing of 6.25 m. Therefore, diffusivities for

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Thomas Meunier, Claire Ménesguen, Richard Schopp, and Sylvie Le Gentil

incompressible Boussinesq equations are implemented on the f plane. In the present work, we use a flat bottom configuration with slippery conditions at the bottom, a free surface with implicit scheme ( Dukowicz and Smith 1994 ), and open radiative lateral boundary conditions. The advection scheme is a third-order upwind scheme for momentum and tracers that prevents spurious oscillations. Vertical momentum dissipation and tracer diffusivity are both modeled by a biharmonic operator with a coefficient of 1

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