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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

idealized simulations ( Spall 2007 ; Kilpatrick et al. 2014 , 2016 ). The general setting of these analyses was a large-scale wind blowing across (or along) an SST gradient, potentially leading to a change in the stability of the boundary layer. In locally unstable conditions (i.e., winds blowing from cold to warm waters), an increase of the downward transfer of momentum explains the correlation of wind or wind stress with SST anomalies ( Wallace et al. 1989 ; Hayes et al. 1989 ). The mechanism of

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

calculated with Eqs. (3) and (4) . The model domain was the same as that shown in Fig. 2 . The DREAMS product provided daily boundary conditions of ocean currents, seawater temperature, and mixed-layer depths. Initial conditions of these properties on 1 April were also given by the DREAMS product. b. Regional atmospheric model The setup of a regional atmospheric numerical model, except for SST conditions, is described below. The wide model domain ( Fig. 1 ) was set to represent regional climate

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

(approximately 37 hPa). The time steps of terms related to sound waves and other terms were 4.5 and 9.0 s, respectively. The integration period was from 0600 UTC 13 January to 0000 UTC 15 January 2013, including the period of the cyclone’s rapid development. We chose 0600 UTC 13 January as the initial time because the experiment with that initial time successfully simulated the rapid development of the cyclone. The initial and lateral boundary conditions were derived from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA

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Hyodae Seo, Young-Oh Kwon, Terrence M. Joyce, and Caroline C. Ummenhofer

the winter atmosphere. The goal of this study is to examine the large-scale atmospheric response to lateral displacements of the GS path in the North Atlantic using a large ensemble of simulations and a reanalysis dataset. A wide range of GS shift scenarios with varied combinations of initial and lateral boundary conditions is considered, with some being in the observed range and others representing an unprecedented case. Particular attention will be paid to the dynamical adjustment processes

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Benoît Vannière, Arnaud Czaja, Helen Dacre, and Tim Woollings

described in section 3 . The Met Office UM has been run in a global configuration at a resolution of 40 km to generate the boundary conditions of the nested North Atlantic (NA) domain (resolution 12 km). Two simulations, CNTL and SMTH, are forced by two different sets of SST. CNTL and SMTH share the same lateral boundary conditions and differ only by the prescribed SST. SST is taken from ECMWF operational analysis at 0.25° and interpolated linearly to the model’s resolution (12 km). CNTL is forced by

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Niklas Schneider and Bo Qiu

depth is permanently altered ( Samelson et al. 2006 ). Support for this process comes from observations of higher surface winds ( Sweet et al. 1981 ) and deep boundary layers on the warm side of SST fronts ( Businger and Shaw 1984 ; Wai and Stage 1989 ). Air–sea temperature fluxes downstream of an SST front also imprint the oceanic conditions on the hydrostatic, baroclinic pressure in the boundary layer ( Lindzen and Nigam 1987 ). Evidence for this pressure effect comes from the covariations of

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Larry W. O’Neill, Tracy Haack, Dudley B. Chelton, and Eric Skyllingstad

nest is shown in Fig. 12 . We considered only grid points from the inner nest and over the ocean for the analysis presented here. Instantaneous prognostic variables were output at hourly intervals to capture the rapid temporal evolution and propagation of synoptic weather disturbances. Outer boundary conditions were supplied every 6 h by the U.S. Navy’s Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS; Hogan and Rosmond 1991 ). The SST surface boundary condition was provided by the high

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

) observed in (a) July, (b) August, (c) September, and (d) October 2011 that are prescribed as the model boundary condition for MID. Climatological SST is superimposed with contour lines (every 2°C). (e) As in (d), but for TROP where contour lines for the climatological SST are omitted. The present study examines the potential of those prominent warm SST anomalies observed in the North Pacific to force the overlying atmospheric anomalies and their remote influence on the abnormal weather conditions in

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Yi-Hui Wang and W. Timothy Liu

1. Introduction The air–sea interaction over western boundary currents and their extension is substantially stronger than in other regions. The large amounts of heat and moisture that are released from warm ocean currents to the overlying atmosphere during winter play a key role in Earth’s energy transport and climate variability ( Kelly and Dong 2004 ). The impacts of western boundary currents on the atmosphere range from frontal to basin scales. At the basin scale, Nakamura et al. (2004

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Kazutoshi Sato, Atsuyoshi Manda, Qoosaku Moteki, Kensuke K. Komatsu, Koto Ogata, Hatsumi Nishikawa, Miki Oshika, Yuriko Otomi, Shiori Kunoki, Hisao Kanehara, Takashi Aoshima, Kenichi Shimizu, Jun Uchida, Masako Shimoda, Mitsuharu Yagi, Shoshiro Minobe, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

China Sea. Most studies of air–sea interaction in the East China Sea have been based on numerical models, satellite data products, or model-based reanalysis. In situ atmospheric vertical soundings over the East China Sea have been lacking. Models and products should be validated using in situ data. In particular, mesoscale convective systems, structure of the marine atmospheric boundary layer, and detailed SST distributions around the Kuroshio have not been fully resolved by the models and model

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