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Xin-Zhong Liang, Hyun I. Choi, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Yongjiu Dai, Everette Joseph, Julian X. L. Wang, and Praveen Kumar

representation of surface–atmosphere interactions, which generally requires specification of surface boundary conditions (SBCs) over both land and oceans. However, there is no universal, complete set of SBCs that satisfies all models. For example, the WRF release version 2 included the six-layer Rapid Uptake Cycle (RUC; Smirnova et al. 2000 ) and the four-layer Noah ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Ek et al. 2003 ) land surface models (LSMs), while the CWRF added the 11-layer Common Land Model (CLM; Dai et al

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Eugene S. Takle, Daniel A. Rajewski, and Samantha L. Purdy

natural boundary layer offer a method to clarify the role of wind farms in modifying wind farm microclimates. In this report, we provide an overview of the characteristics of the boundary layer that are being created by this new and expanding establishment of large utility-scale wind farms. These results provide a delineation of how single and multiple wakes aggregate to characterize wind and turbulence conditions that define vertical profiles of meteorological conditions within a wind farm. We

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Diandong Ren and Ann Henderson-Sellers

term, the second term is considered as gravitational drainage, and the third term results from vegetation transpiration. Since K D is a function of Θ, analytically, it means that Equation (3) is a complex nonlinear equation. However, it has some nice qualities under very weak requirements of K D ; for example, the solution exists and is unique and the solution is confined (by boundary conditions and source/sink terms not shown here). 3. An analytical model describing the evapotranspiration

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

coupled to a land surface and urban modeling system that aimed to address emerging issues in urban areas ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). Our experiment uses the Noah land surface model (LSM) to model the land surface ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), thereby providing surface energy fluxes and surface skin temperatures that serve as the boundary conditions for the atmospheric model. While the original version of Noah LSM has a bulk parameterization for urban land use, our experiment uses a single-layer UCM to

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Mark A. Snyder and Lisa C. Sloan

; Kim et al. 2002 ; Knowles and Cayan 2002 ; Leung et al. 2004 ; Snyder et al. 2002 ). Snyder et al. ( Snyder et al. 2002 ) used boundary conditions derived from a global climate model (GCM) with monthly varying sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to examine the sensitivity of California climate to doubled preindustrial CO 2 concentrations (560 ppm). That study found that under future climate conditions, the water resources of the state were dramatically affected. The results showed that snow

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Jianjun Ge, Nathan Torbick, and Jiaguo Qi

underlying soil and vegetation surfaces. As numerical modeling of atmospheric processes has progressed and research on human impacts on climate change has become more urgent over the past decade, the need for accurate characterization of the land surface as boundary conditions in climate modeling is becoming widely recognized (e.g., Dickinson 1995 ; Sellers et al. 1997 ; Pielke et al. 1998 ; Bonan et al. 2004 ; Feddema et al. 2005 ; Ge et al. 2007 ). Land-cover products have been used in the soil

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G. T. Narisma and A. J. Pitman

GEMRAMS. We chose to simulate the January climate because Narisma and Pitman ( Narisma and Pitman 2003 ) have previously shown that there is a clear response to changes in land cover for this month. GEMRAMS was initialized and driven by boundary conditions taken from a transitory climate simulation of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Mark 2 atmosphere–ocean model ( Watterson and Dix 2003 ). The CSIRO model has a spatial resolution of approximately 3.28° latitude

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Z. M. Subin, W. J. Riley, J. Jin, D. S. Christianson, M. S. Torn, and L. M. Kueppers

California-specific plant functional types (PFTs) within CLM3.5. We used a fine-resolution (20 km) regional climate model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)–CLM3.5, which is described below] to evaluate the impact of vegetation change on the California regional climate. The use of several vegetation scenarios with both historical climate (HC) and future climate (FC) boundary conditions allowed us to separate the biogeophysical effects of local vegetation from the effects of large

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G. J. P. Salazar, R. N. J. Aguirre, and M. G. A. Peñuela

was established that the sediment–water boundary presented reducing conditions (Eh < +150 mV) in the water columns and strongly reducing conditions (Eh < −120 mV) in the sediment water at sites E1, E2, E3, and E5, mainly in the rainy season ( Figure 6 ). Based on the dissolved oxygen levels in both the rainy and dry seasons, oxic conditions were found in the water column ( Figure 7 ). For the sediment water, suboxic–hypoxic conditions were recorded, which were possibly anoxic beyond at a depth of

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Shijie Zhong and Michael Gurnis

dynamically evolving margins were made by Gurnis and Hager ( Gurnis and Hager, 1988 ), who simulated plates of variable size through a weak zone formulation; one weak zone was attached to an overriding plate that was fixed as a reference frame, while the other weak zone was used to simulate a ridge that moves with the mean velocity of the two adjacent oceanic plates. In two- dimensional models with periodic boundary conditions, Gurnis and Hager ( Gurnis and Hager, 1988 ) found that the dip of slabs was

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