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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

Transfer Model (RRTM; Skamarock et al. 2005 ) longwave radiation, Goddard shortwave radiation, and the Monin–Obukhov surface layer scheme. The North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used for atmospheric initialization and lateral boundary conditions using 3-hourly nudging. The vertical resolution of NU-WRF was specified as 43 vertical levels, with the lowest model level ~24 m above the surface, which was designed to improve resolution in the lower layers (PBL) relative to default configurations

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Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Aihui Wang

-correlation measurements of SH are also very small, and such underestimates of SH are widely recognized in the flux tower measurement community (e.g., Goulden et al. 1996 ; Gu et al. 2005 ). If SH is close to zero, the atmospheric boundary layer would be decoupled from the land surface. For land–atmosphere coupled modeling, this would degrade the model results in the atmospheric boundary layer ( Beljaars and Viterbo 1998 ). On the other hand, SH should not be close to zero under stable conditions from three lines of

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Agustín Robles-Morua, Enrique R. Vivoni, and Alex S. Mayer

. Since the parallelization capabilities in tRIBS ( Vivoni et al. 2011 ) were not available yet, the large domain was divided into individual subbasins (a similar strategy is followed in the parallel version). For each subbasin model domain, we processed terrain, soil, vegetation, bedrock depth, and initial groundwater distributions to provide distributed model parameters and the boundary and initial conditions. Because of the large number of subbasins, the spatially explicit basin properties were

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

(CAPE), precipitable water, and a lifting mechanism occur in the presence of a sufficiently thick planetary boundary layer (PBL) and relatively small amounts of convective inhibition (CIN; Bluestein 1993 ). Changes in the surface temperature and moisture fields with irrigation have opposing effects on the development of convective precipitation. Additional near-surface moisture from irrigation enhances convection by increasing CAPE, despite lower temperatures with irrigation ( Crook 1996 ; Pielke

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Ruth E. Comer and Martin J. Best

C. , Gash J. , Cox P. M. , and Jogireddy V. , 2007 : Improving the representation of radiation interception and photosynthesis for climate model applications . Tellus , 59B , 553 – 569 , doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00256.x . Moufouma-Okia, W. , and Rowell D. P. , 2010 : Impact of soil moisture initialisation and lateral boundary conditions on regional climate model simulations of the West African Monsoon . Climate Dyn. , 35 , 213 – 229 , doi:10.1007/s00382

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

generally larger during high ET conditions ( Dirmeyer and Brubaker 2007 ). As each parcel was tracked backward, the evaporative source at each time step was deducted from the total precipitation. Parcels were tracked backward until all the precipitation in the parcel was accounted for, if they reached the boundary of the domain, or if they were tracked for more than 7 days. At the end of being tracked, each parcel had a unique evaporative source of the precipitation that occurred at the time the parcel

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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

nodes, respectively, with a global repeat on the order of 2–3 days. Accordingly, Aqua ’s overpass times are well suited for coupling studies: the descending node provides a sampling of the stable, nocturnal boundary layer conditions, while the ascending node captures the near peak of the daytime PBL growth. Reanalyses, which are loosely constrained by the observations they assimilate, represent a secondary means to investigate coupling. Reanalyses are particularly attractive as compared to

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