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Silvia Merino-de-Miguel, Federico González-Alonso, Margarita Huesca, Dolors Armenteras, and Carol Franco

1. Introduction Wildfire is a critical Earth-system process that has significant influences on both terrestrial and atmospheric conditions, especially in relation to vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, and atmospheric chemistry. In South America, wildfires cause these conditions to change and have an impact on a number of other conditions associated not only with forest composition but also with the structure and functioning of the tropical forest ( Cochrane and Laurance

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Mirco Boschetti, Daniela Stroppiana, and Pietro Alessandro Brivio

), spectral unmixing techniques ( Román-Cuesta et al. 2005 ; Smith et al. 2007 ), and logistic regression models ( Koutsias and Karteris 2000 ). Techniques based on thresholding the spectral indices (SIs) are widely applied, because they are computationally fast and efficient to detect fire-affected areas with both MR and HR data ( Chongo et al. 2007 ; Smith et al. 2007 ). However, no agreement exists on which index performs best and in which conditions it has to be preferred ( Lasaponara 2006

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