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M. Baldi, G. A. Dalu, and R. A. Pielke Sr.

energy generated in the boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 106 , 721 – 726 . Kustas , W. P. , J. H. Prueger , J. I. MacPherson , M. Wolde , and F. Li , 2005 : Effects of land use and meteorological conditions on local and regional momentum transport and roughness for Midwestern cropping systems. J. Hydrometeor. , 6 , 825 – 839 . Li , B. , and R. Avissar , 1994 : The impact of spatial variability of land-surface characteristics on land-surface heat fluxes. J

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Vinodkumar, A. Chandrasekar, K. Alapaty, and Dev Niyogi

improve the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) simulations using improved surface boundary conditions in atmospheric models. The surface fluxes, and to some extent the entrainment fluxes at the top of the ABL, determine ABL structure and evolution. Improved surface fluxes over land require, in addition to surface observations of temperature and humidity, detailed observations of soil moisture and soil temperature. Soil moisture (and soil temperature) is not available from most routine meteorological

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and M. Vertenstein

. Oke , T. R. , and C. East , 1971 : The urban boundary layer in Montreal. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 1 , 411 – 437 . Oke , T. R. , and G. B. Maxwell , 1975 : Urban heat island dynamics in Montreal and Vancouver. Atmos. Environ. , 9 , 191 – 200 . Oke , T. R. , G. T. Johnson , D. G. Steyn , and I. D. Watson , 1991 : Simulation of surface urban heat islands under ‘ideal’ conditions at night. Part 2: Diagnosis of causation. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 56 , 339 – 358 . Oke

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, M. Vertenstein, and C. S. B. Grimmond

lower boundary conditions by the atmospheric model at the next time step. b. Structure Land surface heterogeneity in CLM3 is represented as a nested subgrid hierarchy in which grid cells are composed of multiple land units, snow/soil columns, and plant functional types. The first subgrid level, the land unit, is intended to capture the broadest spatial patterns of subgrid heterogeneity. The model described here is designed to represent urban land units. The representation of the urban land unit is

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