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In-Young Yeo, Steven I. Gordon, and Jean-Michel Guldmann

considering the watershed as a networked system of flow cells. The distributed cells are interconnected through flow paths and form a stream network system within the watershed boundaries ( Maidment, 1993 ). Then, two model assumptions are made: homogeneity and linearity. The physical properties of the cells are assumed to be homogeneous. The second assumption is based on the fact that the runoff process tends to be linear as the flow increases ( Pilgrim and Cordery, 1993 ; Olivera, 1996 ). In this model

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Gemma T. Narisma and Andrew J. Pitman

longwave radiation scheme described by Chen and Cotton ( Chen and Cotton, 1983 ; Chen and Cotton, 1987 ). The model was initialized and driven by boundary conditions taken from a transitory simulation of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Mark 2 atmosphere–ocean model ( Watterson and Dix, 2003 ). The CSIRO model has a spatial resolution of approximately 3.2° latitude and 5.6° longitude and includes nine vertical layers for the atmosphere. Climate simulations

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Christopher Small

agricultural regions are likely to remain under cultivation as large-scale mechanized cultivation replaces smaller-scale agricultural land use. The current spatial distribution of urban land use can also provide boundary conditions for future scenarios and projections of urban growth. Mapping present and future (projected) urban land-use distributions in geophysical parameter spaces could serve the dual purpose of 1) providing geophysical constraints for process models with physical parameters, and 2

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