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F. Joseph Turk, Z. S. Haddad, and Y. You

simulations should cover the full range of the variability in the underlying atmospheric and surface conditions, with sufficient skill to represent the multichannel TB that would have been measured by actual MW radiometer observations. Once created for each sensor in the GPM constellation, the observational “database” with its associated TB is available offline as the a priori knowledge for probabilistic, Bayesian-based precipitation retrievals, for subsequent precipitation retrievals separately from each

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Jun Awaka, Minda Le, V. Chandrasekar, Naofumi Yoshida, Tomohiko Higashiuwatoko, Takuji Kubota, and Toshio Iguchi

of the BB (BBwidth) is computed from the upper (BBtop) and lower boundaries (BBbottom) of the BB. The upper and lower boundaries are determined by examination of the reflectivity profile. The BBbottom is determined first and has a similar definition to that of Fabry and Zawadzki (1995) . The BBtop is determined next and has a definition somewhere between that given by Fabry and Zawadzki (1995) and that by Klaassen (1988) . At nadir, BBwidth is computed using where because the range is

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Eun-Kyoung Seo, Sung-Dae Yang, Mircea Grecu, Geun-Hyeok Ryu, Guosheng Liu, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Yoo-Jeong Noh, Ziad Haddad, and Jinho Shin

representative of summer rainfall around the Korean Peninsula and in East Asia. A 24-h forecast was produced for each case. Initial and boundary conditions were derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final Analysis data ( Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ). All experiments involved one-way interactive triple-nested domains with a Lambert conformal map projection. The finest grid domain had a resolution of 2 km and was nested in a 6-km-resolution domain, which in turn was nested in an 18-km

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Robert Meneghini, Hyokyung Kim, Liang Liao, Jeffrey A. Jones, and John M. Kwiatkowski

radar and the radar return power from the surface. The equation for the estimate of path attenuation consists simply of a subtraction (dB) between the NRCS under rain-free and raining conditions. Let be the apparent NRCS in a raining area at incidence angle θ , measured with respect to the local normal to the surface, and let be the reference NRCS at the same angle, formed from data taken in rain-free areas. An estimate of the two-way path-integrated attenuation (dB) is given by where the

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Tomoaki Mega and Shoichi Shige

dynamic surface flag method. The satellite geometric data include latitude, longitude, and local azimuth angle. Latitude and longitude indicate the center of the footprint ellipse, and the local azimuth angle is the orientation of the major axis of the footprint ellipse from north. Axis lengths of the ellipse were determined by the EFOV size. The location and the orientation determine the boundary of the EFOV. The surface type within the footprint is derived from the high-resolution geographic data

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Atsushi Hamada and Yukari N. Takayabu

precipitation types. For all precipitation types, an increase can be observed at every level from the near-surface level to around 15 km. This is probably due to the expansion of the top and lateral boundaries of the precipitation echo because of the detectability enhancement, although it could also possibly be due to noise contamination. A notable increase can be seen at 10–11 km, especially for the precipitation types stratiform and other, demonstrating that the detectability enhancement of the GPM DPR

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