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Kyle Andrew Poyar and Nancy Beller-Simms

1. Introduction The evidence is now undeniable that we are already witnessing changes in climate both in the United States ( Karl et al. 2009 ) and around the world ( Parry et al. 2007 ). Even if humans ceased emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) today, because of the residency of GHGs in the atmosphere we are committed to the persistence of a changing climate for the foreseeable future. All told, trends in global economic, demographic, and technological conditions suggest climate change and its

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Christine J. Kirchhoff, Scott E. Kalafatis, Donald Scavia, and Richard B. Rood

to become more adaptive to changing conditions (e.g., evolution of information needs, emergence of new information needs, nonlinearity in climate impact and response). In other words, boundary chains offer the potential for a high level of customization of information without sacrificing diversity (of users or their information needs, or of the kinds of interactive approaches used to address those needs). Fig . 1. Traditional boundary organization arrangement. Fig . 2. Key chain arrangement. Fig

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Julie Brugger and Michael Crimmins

conditions change. We combine these principles into two. 2) A boundary organization to support local-level adaptation should engage in the coproduction of usable local-level adaptation strategies through the collaborative participation of actors from both sides of the boundary and professionals from the organization who serve a mediating role. 3) This requires developing iterative relationships that build trust and ensure a good fit between knowledge produced and user needs. 4) The three literatures also

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Johnathan P. Kirk and Gordon A. Cromley

political region associated with each OAP is included in the gazetteer. To characterize weather conditions by region, the modern precipitation observations were aggregated by political boundary for the three regions featuring the most OAPs (Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina) to construct regional precipitation averages as additional gazetteer attributes. Figure 4 depicts the average daily precipitation by month for these three regions. The numbers of OAPs in each region are also aggregated by month to

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Matthew Potoski, R. Urbatsch, and Cindy Yu

1. Introduction Temperature conditions may induce selection bias in survey research. People adjust their schedules to avoid heat or work indoors when it is cold; varying temperature conditions could thus alter who responds to surveys—especially if income groups’ responses to temperature differ (say, because of differential access to climate control). Outdoor temperatures could then lead to sample effects , biasing respondents’ income distribution. At the same time, weather affects people

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Melanie M. Colavito, Sarah F. Trainor, Nathan P. Kettle, and Alison York

Because AFSC is just one example of a boundary organization, a key study limitation is that it cannot assess the range of conditions under which boundary organizations operate. For example, AFSC operates in a stakeholder context with a receptive and engaged audience. Therefore, this study cannot analyze how a boundary organization that lacks this initial condition can work to promote knowledge coproduction. As such, the single case study approach used allows for rich contextual detail but cannot

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Wes P. Kent and Scott C. Sheridan

League Baseball often deals with inclement conditions. If it is moderately raining, then a game is typically postponed or cancelled. Several studies have assessed how various weather variables can impact Major League Baseball games. An earlier study by Kingsley (1980) examined the effects of temperature and humidity on home run frequencies in Atlanta. Skeeter (1988) analyzed wind and its impact on individual stadiums from 1965 to 1974 while theorizing how those wind patterns might favor left- or

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David L. Feldman and Helen M. Ingram

knowledge–action systems have sufficient flexibility of processes and institutions to effectively produce and apply climate information, encourage diffusion of boundary-spanning innovation, be self-innovative and responsive, and develop “operating criteria that measure responsiveness to changing conditions and external advisory processes” ( Cash and Buizer 2005 ). Often, nontraditional institutions that operate outside “normal” channels, such as nongovernmental organizations or regional coordinating

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Scott E. Kalafatis, Julie C. Libarkin, Kyle Powys Whyte, and Chris Caldwell

new paradigm ( Kuhn 1970 , 72–74). Anomalies that undermined the perceived usefulness of the Newtonian perspective increasingly led it to act more and more like an epistemic object whose failures to explain observed phenomena created the conditions for a shift to a new prevailing understanding of physics. 3. Building a boundary object, utilizing an epistemic one This paper argues that tracking the changing roles that objects play in relation to cross-cultural collaborations in climate change

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Mikhail Varentsov, Natalia Shartova, Mikhail Grischenko, and Pavel Konstantinov

2015 ), to evaluate global climate models (e.g., Gleckler et al. 2008 ) and to supply high-resolution regional climate simulations in initial and boundary conditions (e.g., Varentsov et al. 2018 ) as well as for ecological applications ( Mislan and Wethey 2011 ). The first pioneering studies have already shown the high potential of using reanalysis data for bioclimatic assessments ( Jacobs et al. 2013 ; Di Napoli et al. 2018 ). a. Research data The study used the ERA-Interim reanalysis ( Dee et

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