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Kyle A. Hilburn, Imme Ebert-Uphoff, and Steven D. Miller

thunderstorms with abundant cloud water concentrations (e.g., Williams et al. 2005 ) that produce large anvils that obscure the convective cores in infrared imagery. While these conditions also lead to very high lightning rates, Rutledge et al. (2020) show these conditions also produce storms for which the lighting flash height is relatively low, making for large optical paths between the lightning source and the upper cloud boundary along the GLM sensor line of sight (both in general and for this

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Andrew E. Mercer, Alexandria D. Grimes, and Kimberly M. Wood

episodes meet this threshold ( Kaplan et al. 2010 ). Additionally, the exact physical processes governing RI remain poorly understood ( Wang and Wu 2004 ; Grimes and Mercer 2014 ), an issue compounded by the relative lack of boundary layer observations within the TC environment and heavy reliance on global operational dynamic forecast models to fill these observational gaps. Recent work has improved our understanding of processes governing the RI of Atlantic Ocean TCs. The probability of RI increases

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