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Matthew R. Mazloff

makes sense, as coarse-resolution models typically have weak and diffuse boundary currents ( Large et al. 1997 ), and thus increasing resolution allows for boundary layer transports to play a larger role. Nevertheless, 2° resolution is still very coarse, and thus Losch and Heimbach (2007) report the sensitivity of the Drake Passage transport to wind stress to have a very smooth basin-scale structure. This is especially true with respect to the zonal wind stress (their Fig. 6a). They found the

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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

as the Southern Ocean. Additional motivation for constructing ERA+C and NCEP1+C flux estimates was provided by the results of Renfrew et al. (2002) and Moore and Renfrew (2002) , who, analyzing the Labrador Sea and western boundary current regions, recommended using NCEP surface meteorological fields as input into a more appropriate bulk algorithm rather than using the turbulent heat flux estimates from the NCEP NWP model. We shall see, however, that introduction of the more accurate bulk flux

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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

–Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis II (hereafter NCEP2; Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ) are used. NCEP2 surface products are gridded on 1.875° resolution and are available from 1979 to the present. b. Mean SHF Figure 2 shows the global 30-yr mean SHF patterns in two seasons, the boreal winter season from December to February (DJF) and the austral winter season from June to August (JJA). During the boreal wintertime, SHF has the maximum intensity along the pathways of the western boundary currents (WBCs) and

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

Reanalysis Downscaling at 10 km (CARD10) produced for the California current region with some improvement in the boundary conditions and model physics ( Yoshimura and Kanamitsu 2009 ; Kanamitsu et al. 2010 ). Small-scale features are generated by forcing a high-resolution regional atmospheric model with large-scale NCEP–NCAR reanalysis fields on the domain boundaries. For the California downscaling CARD10, daily SSTs from ECMWF reanalysis (1° × 1°) were used ( Fiorino 2004 ; Kanamitsu and Kanamaru 2007

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

1. Introduction For the climate system, one of the important features of sea ice is the heat insulation effect between atmosphere and ocean. The heat insulation effect is greatly reduced in the case of thin ice. Thus, in the sea ice zone, the heat flux between atmosphere and ocean depends strongly on both ice concentration and thickness. For example, in a coastal polynya, which is a typical thin-ice area formed by divergent ice drift due to prevailing winds or oceanic currents ( Morales Maqueda

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

conducted using reanalyses that have led to an improved understanding of high-latitude teleconnection patterns (e.g., Thompson and Wallace 1998 ; Hurrell et al. 2001 ; Genthon et al. 2003 ; Monaghan and Bromwich 2008 ) and the identification of prevailing atmospheric conditions during recent, dramatic reductions in Arctic perennial sea ice cover ( Ogi and Wallace 2007 ). Reanalyses are also used as first-order validation for climate models and provide necessary boundary forcing conditions for ocean

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

reduction (e.g., Porter et al. 2010 ). As noted in Cullather and Bosilovich (2011) , numerical reanalyses are widely used in polar research for evaluating polar processes, as boundary conditions for limited area atmosphere and ocean–sea ice models and as a first-order validation for climate models. However, reanalyses inevitably contain inaccuracies resulting from limitations in the observing system, inconsistencies between observing methods, and incomplete knowledge of the physical processes that are

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