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Daniel Vila, Ralph Ferraro, and Hilawe Semunegus

( Semunegus and Bates 2008 ; Semunegus et al. 2010 ). Thus, the primary goals of this paper are to perform a statistical-based QC procedure on the input data (⅓° daily antenna temperature files) to remove spurious values not detected in the original database and to reprocess the rainfall product using the current version of the algorithm for the period 1992–2007. The election of this period is based on the fact that during the period of June 1990–December 1991, the 85-GHz channels aboard the SSM/I F-8

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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

to produce snowstorms on the lee side of the lakes during the autumn and winter seasons. Under suitable conditions (that involve the lake–air temperature difference, airflow, and stability in the boundary layer), strong organized convection may develop. The resulting lines or bands of clouds can produce considerable amounts of snow and are known as lake-effect snowstorms. Classic storms that occur on the cold-air side of synoptic-scale systems (i.e., synoptic events) tend to occur under stable

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

convergence zone (ITCZ), where ERA-Int is significantly lower relative to the other datasets. In regions with cold surface currents, such as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) or the upwelling regions on the western continental boundaries, HOAPS and ERA-Int show comparable values within 0.5 m s −1 (5%). The largest negative bias is found over the Arabian Sea and over the Bay of Bengal. Similar patterns are evident in the difference plot of HOAPS and NOCS ( Fig. 2 , top right). HOAPS wind speeds are

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Cristian Mitrescu, Tristan L’Ecuyer, John Haynes, Steven Miller, and Joseph Turk

Polarization (CALIOP) lidar, trails closely behind CloudSat in tight formation to achieve maximum overlap between the observations. CALIOP is most sensitive to thin high-level cirrus, aerosols, and boundary layer structures, providing a complementary observation to CloudSat . Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar (PARASOL) and Aura round off the A-Train formation. This paper provides an update on progress to exploit the sensitivity

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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

gauge values. The high ratios R over coastline are probably due to some combination of coastal meteorology and antenna sidelobes that straddle the land–sea boundary, particularly indented boundaries, although the algorithm assumes pure land. The reasons for the high ratios for the seven gauges north of 75°N are unknown. To understand further the possible reasons for these regional overestimates, including coastline and desert, the entire set of 787 gauges in nonhilly sites was then grouped instead

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Shelley L. Knuth, Gregory J. Tripoli, Jonathan E. Thom, and George A. Weidner

2000 ). Currently, the only source of real-time ground-based precipitation measurements is staffed Antarctic stations where personnel, with large turnover rates, collect the observations on a limited temporal basis and where distances between measurements can be upward of 1300 km. As such, very little is known from real-time measurements about precipitation across a broad area of the continent. What is known has been acquired through other methods, including ice core, model, and reanalysis data. In

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Mark S. Kulie and Ralf Bennartz

, as well as some complications of using CPR data that may bias snowfall retrievals in certain locations. Additionally, attempts are made to address future snowfall observations by a dual-frequency radar with similar characteristics as the GPM DPR. Current DPR instrument specifications anticipate that the MDS for the DPR Ku-PR (13.6 GHz) and Ka-PR (35.5 GHz) will be near 17 and 12 dB Z e , respectively ( Nakamura and Iguchi 2007 ). While the Ka-PR’s higher frequency and lower MDS will enable it to

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Ali Behrangi, Koulin Hsu, Bisher Imam, and Soroosh Sorooshian

passive microwave sensors are carried on low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, thus restricting the temporal resolution of global precipitation mapping products. Although improvements in temporal resolution of global PMW coverage will be achieved through the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, observations will remain constrained by ∼3-h-average revisit time and ∼10-km gridbox resolution ( Hou et al. 2008 ). Currently, the growing demand from various scientific communities for global finer

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Alan J. Geer, Peter Bauer, and Christopher W. O’Dell

differences between C max and C av . Here, the air is usually subsiding at upper levels and cirrus or other clouds are less likely; the main mass of cloud comes from boundary layer maritime stratocumulus. A minor complication arises because the rain and snow inputs to RTTOV-S CATT are in terms of flux (kg m −2 s −1 ), but there is a nonlinear conversion to density (kg m −3 ) that is used in the calculations. By assuming exponential size distributions for both rain and snow, constant density with size

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