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Enrique R. Vivoni, Hugo A. Gutiérrez-Jurado, Carlos A. Aragón, Luis A. Méndez-Barroso, Alex J. Rinehart, Robert L. Wyckoff, Julio C. Rodríguez, Christopher J. Watts, John D. Bolten, Venkataraman Lakshmi, and Thomas J. Jackson

). Despite its regional impact, relatively little is currently known about the potential interactions between the monsoon system and land surface properties (e.g., topography, soil moisture, vegetation) that may play a role in initiating and sustaining moist convection. The land and atmosphere interaction may be particularly important for topographically complex areas in the monsoon region. For example, Gochis et al. (2004) showed important terrain controls on the distribution of precipitation using

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Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, David B. Enfield, and Chidong Zhang

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 15-yr global reanalysis (ERA15, Gibson et al. 1997 ). They examine uncertainties arising from choices of area boundaries, calculation algorithms, spatial and temporal resolutions, as well as a combination of these effects. Their main conclusion is that these uncertainties are smaller than the large annual and interannual variabilities in moisture flux divergence estimated from the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis. The implication is that the NCEP

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Paquita Zuidema, Chris Fairall, Leslie M. Hartten, Jeffrey E. Hare, and Daniel Wolfe

to the NAME sounding network, helped assess the contribution of the surface fluxes to the regional meteorology and oceanography, documented the mean and diurnally varying wind flow, and provided a surface-based assessment of the cloud field and boundary layer structure. A preliminary analysis is presented here. The observational period included a strong gulf surge around 13 July that coincided with the onset of the summer monsoon in southern Arizona. The surge was associated with Tropical

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Wayne Higgins and David Gochis

:// ), NAME program-relevant documents, and links to other related project data. The NAME data archive consists of 266 datasets and the NAME map server tool and field catalog, which will continue to be available online. The field catalog (reports, maps, imagery, and other “browse-able” products) currently consists of approximately 500 000 files totaling 26 MB. Surface precipitation and upper-air “composite” datasets have also been prepared. The surface precipitation composite datasets (hourly and daily

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X. Gao, J. Li, and S. Sorooshian

scientific objectives by using “a symbiotic mix of diagnostic, modeling, and prediction studies together with enhanced observations” ( NAME Project Science Team 2004 ). The current study analyzes the results of numerical modeling according to NAM system characteristics that were exposed by diagnostic studies based on historic observations and data-assimilation reanalysis. We used a currently available, physically based numerical model to check the agreement and disagreement between the model results, the

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Andrea J. Ray, Gregg M. Garfin, Margaret Wilder, Marcela Vásquez-León, Melanie Lenart, and Andrew C. Comrie

), have shown that stakeholders require information at appropriate scales ( Gamble et al. 2003 ), that forecast products often do not match stakeholders’ interests ( Bales et al. 2004 ), and that scientists’ questions may not be aligned with those of stakeholders ( Lemos and Morehouse 2005 ). This article discusses current efforts to understand the interaction of climate and society in order to develop applications for monsoon research. Because many stakeholders are sensitive to an interlocking set of

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Wanqiu Wang and Pingping Xie

-orbiting National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites ( May et al. 1998 ). While the weekly OI and daily RTG SST analyses have been applied successfully in monitoring weather/climate and forcing numerical models as boundary conditions for weather/climate simulation and prediction, further desirable improvements in their quantitatively accuracy and time–space resolution are limited largely due to the infrequent sampling of polar-orbiting NOAA satellites and the inability of the AVHRR

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Myong-In Lee, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, Isaac M. Held, Arun Kumar, Thomas L. Bell, Jae-Kyung E. Schemm, Ngar-Cheung Lau, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, Hyun-Kyung Kim, and Soo-Hyun Yoo

cycle (e.g., Randall et al. 1991 ), and provide guidance on how to improve the representation of subgrid-scale processes in the model (e.g., Betts et al. 1996 ; Giorgi and Shields 1999 ; Lin et al. 2000 ; Groisman et al. 2000 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Zhang 2003 ; Collier and Bowman 2004 ; Lee et al. 2007 ). Although current climate models simulate reasonably well the broad-scale characteristics of the diurnal cycle of warm season precipitation, there are still many features at the local

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Timothy J. Lang, David A. Ahijevych, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Richard E. Carbone, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

to four regions based on their distance from the y axis to examine cross-coast variability ( Fig. 1b ) and two regions based on their distance from the x axis (to examine along-coast variability). Figure 1b shows the x boundaries of each of the four cross-coast geographic regions in the rotated coordinate. The two along-coast regions result from evenly splitting the Fig. 1b RDA domain into north and south. To identify features that have become organized on the mesoscale, a subset of PFs

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Mekonnen Gebremichael, Enrique R. Vivoni, Christopher J. Watts, and Julio C. Rodríguez

Occidental (SMO) and Sierra Madre Oriental to the west and east, respectively; the Sonora Desert located along the boundary between Sonora and Arizona; and the Chihuahua Desert between the SMO and Sierra Madre Oriental. The development of the North American monsoon is characterized by heavy rainfall in late May or early June over southern Mexico, which quickly spreads northward along the western slopes of the SMO into northwestern Mexico by early July ( Higgins et al. 2003 ). Precipitation increases over

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