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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

data The use of high-resolution spaceborne radar–derived precipitation profiles to train satellite microwave radiometer algorithms has been exploited in other remote sensing studies for improving estimates of precipitation (e.g., Bauer et al. 2001 ; Shin and Kummerow 2003 ; Kubota et al. 2007 ), but only in GO06 were these databases used to estimate latent heating. The primary difference between the latent heating algorithm of the current study and GO06 lies in the construction of the

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Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Nagio Hirota

current climate, 28°C may be a generally good rule of thumb as a threshold for deep convection; however, the circulation is probably more important in determining the value of the threshold. Under the influence of large-scale subsidence, a resulting temperature inversion and dry layer in the mid–low troposphere are two factors suppressing deep convection. Historically, tropical convective clouds were considered to have a “bimodal structure,” consisting of deep cumulus convection and shallow trade

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

MJO is necessary for achieving better simulations and predictions of our global climate and weather systems. Unfortunately, the capability of the current general circulation models (GCMs) to simulate the MJO remains limited (e.g., Slingo et al. 1996 ; Slingo et al. 2005 ; Lin et al. 2006 ; Kim et al. 2009 ). While models can have weak or even too strong intraseasonal variance, the most consistent problem is the lack of organization with the right temporal and spatial scales and propagation

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Shaocheng Xie, Timothy Hume, Christian Jakob, Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, and Minghua Zhang

convective cloud systems, their large-scale environment, and the detailed cloud microphysical properties ( Fig. 1 ). One of the unique features of TWP-ICE is that radiosondes were launched with very high temporal resolution (3-hourly launches) at all of the five boundary sounding stations. Consequently, the diurnal variability of convective cloud systems can be better resolved by TWP-ICE data than in data from earlier tropical field experiments. The northern Australian summer monsoon season usually

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

dominated by phase changes between water vapor and small liquid or frozen cloud-sized particles. It consists of the condensation of cloud droplets, evaporation of cloud droplets and raindrops, freezing of cloud droplets and raindrops, melting of snow and graupel/hail, and the deposition and sublimation of ice particles. In addition, eddy heat flux convergence from cloud motions can also redistribute the heating or cooling vertically and horizontally. LH cannot be measured directly with current

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Arindam Chakraborty, and A. K. Mishra

from this type of modeling can still be quite useful. Following Krishnamurti and Sanjay (2003) we can also construct a single unified model that utilizes the statistical weights of the multimodel superensemble for the heating. Such an exercise has been carried out previously by us for a choice of different cumulus parameterization ( Krishnamurti and Sanjay 2003 ), for different planetary boundary layer formulations ( Krishnamurti et al. 2008a ), and for different cloud radiative transfer

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

System (CERES) clouds and radiative swath (CRS) product ( Wielicki et al. 1996 ) offers estimates of Q R that are constrained to match top of the atmosphere (TOA) flux measurements but with reduced temporal sampling, whereas Cloudsat’s level-2B radiative fluxes and heating rates algorithm (2B-FLXHR; L’Ecuyer et al. 2008 ) offers improved cloud boundary information and spatial resolution but at greatly reduced spatial and temporal sampling. All of these algorithms are built on the same basic

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

the vertical profile of LH is an important goal in order to improve model characterizations of current and future climate dynamics. The analyses presented here show that LH algorithms based on satellite information are capable of representing the spatial and temporal characteristics of the vertically integrated heating in the Asian monsoon region. However, the vertical distribution of atmospheric heating still needs to be improved. TRMM CSH has proven to be an adequate representative of the

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