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J. Li, S. Sorooshian, W. Higgins, X. Gao, B. Imam, and K. Hsu

is the GOC low-level jet (LLJ), which typically develops along the Gulf of California and typically reaches peak intensity in the early morning. The jet has been investigated using observations from SWAMP (e.g., Douglas and Li 1996 ); Douglas et al. 1998 ) and using numerical simulations (e.g., Stensrud et al. 1995 , 1997 ; Anderson et al. 2001 ; Fawcett et al. 2002 ; Gochis et al. 2002 ; Li et al. 2004 ; Saleeby and Cotton 2004 ; Mo et al. 2005 ; Gao et al. 2007 ). In general, current

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T. N. Krishnamurti, C. Gnanaseelan, A. K. Mishra, and A. Chakraborty

on the use of diverse physical parameterization within a suite of multimodels was reported in Krishnamurti et al. (2008) . Here several planetary boundary layer algorithms constituted the difference among the member models of a multimodel suite. The goal of this study was to examine the possible improvements in the planetary boundary layer fluxes of latent heat that can be achieved from our approach. This study requires an observational benchmark for the latent heat fluxes. Those were obtained

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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

Following Eq. (6a) , the mean of each water cycle component over the 2002–04 period is shown in Fig. 1 . As expected, P is strongest in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and over the Indonesian warm pool. The storm-track regions just downwind of the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream also appear as local maxima. The E is strongest over these western boundary currents as well as where large-scale subsidence from the Hadley circulation provides hot and dry air over warm subtropical oceans. Moist and

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R. Cifelli, S. W. Nesbitt, S. A. Rutledge, W. A. Petersen, and S. Yuter

appear to have diurnal signals correlated with land-based convection, coupled through gravity wave currents and/or land–sea breeze interactions. Mapes et al. (2003) used a simple numerical model to show how diurnal heating over elevated terrain in the Panama Bight region could excite gravity waves and lead to the subsequent onset of precipitation over the adjacent ocean region. These previous works lead us to the hypothesis that the proximity to land of an ocean location is an important driver in

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

algorithm consists of the PR-only rain-rate profile scheme, akin to the top-down Hitschfeld–Bordan recursive scheme, that normally uses a cloud-free surface radar cross section ( σ r ), which PR observed over a few swaths prior to the current observation, to reassign the total path attenuation ( A ) and a prespecified Z – R relationship for defining the allowable rain microphysics. The coefficients of the initial unified Z– R / Z – A relationships, designed to yield a top-down attenuation path during

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Song Yang, Kwo-Sen Kuo, and Eric A. Smith

is also a counterpart MLA secondary peak in the oceanic diurnal precipitation cycle (e.g., McGarry and Reed 1978 ; Reed and Jaffe 1981 ; Augustine 1984 ; Fu et al. 1990 ; Serra and McPhaden 2004 ), for which the only plausible explanation that can be put forward is an “ocean surface heating” (OSH) mechanism, which involves near-surface ocean, sea, and inland lake layers and moist boundary layers over water. However, there is yet to be an investigation of the secondary diurnal mode of

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Arindam Chakraborty and T. N. Krishnamurti

Coauthors , 2000 : The status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after two years in orbit. J. Appl. Meteor. , 39 , 1965 – 1982 . Mishra , A. K. , and T. N. Krishnamurti , 2007 : Current status of multimodel superensemble and operational NWP forecast of the Indian summer monsoon. J. Earth Syst. Sci. , 116 , 369 – 384 . Pleim , J. E. , and A. Xiu , 1995 : Development and testing of a surface flux and planetary boundary layer model for application in mesoscale models

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