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Dongliang Yuan, Xiang Li, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Jing Wang, Ya Yang, Xiaoyue Hu, Shuwen Tan, Hui Zhou, Adhitya Kusuma Wardana, Dewi Surinati, Adi Purwandana, Mochamad Furqon Azis Ismail, Praditya Avianto, Dirham Dirhamsyah, Zainal Arifin, and Jin-Song von Storch

that the western boundary reflections are nonlinear ( Yuan et al. 2004 ; Yuan 2005 ; Spall and Pedlosky 2005 ; Yuan and Han 2006 ). A western boundary current (WBC) flowing by a gap has nonlinear bifurcation and hysteresis ( Sheremet 2001 ; Kuehl and Sheremet 2009 ) and is subject to regime shifts if perturbed by mesoscale eddies or winds ( Yuan and Li 2008 ; Wang et al. 2010 ; Yuan and Wang 2011 ). The nonlinear collisions of two WBCs at a gappy boundary are also shown to have multiple

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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

eastern boundary interfering with the Rossby wave propagation. Fig . 4. Annual-cycle harmonics of (a),(b) AGC zonal velocity and (c),(d) vertical isothermal displacement in the vertical section along 5°N. The phases are the month of the strongest eastward currents and the highest temperature. The black dashed lines are WKB ray paths of a vertically propagating meridional mode 1 Rossby wave originating from the central Pacific Ocean. Units are cm s −1 and m, respectively, for amplitude in (a) and (c

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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

) and (c) are the input data for the MEOF analysis. Covariances between unscaled first PC time series with NDJ (d) net shortwave radiation, (e) latent heat flux, and (f) horizontal advection and surface oceanic current. (g) First mode PC time series, with dashed lines indicating the one standard deviation thresholds and blue (red) solid circles indicating strong (weak) CT years. At the same time, the winter monsoon is strongly modulated by various tropical remote forcings, such as ENSO ( Wang et al

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Xiang Li, Dongliang Yuan, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep Sandra, Ahmad Bayhaqi, Praditya Avianto, Edi Kusmanto, Dirham Dirhamsyah, and Zainal Arifin

transport estimated to be 2.43 Sv. The small difference in the transport estimates is due to the assumption of strong currents only in the central part of the strait, where the two topographies nearly compensate each other, and the linear interpolation of the currents deeper than 1000 m using the nonslip condition at the bottom. The maximum difference of the above estimates due to the use of the different boundary conditions in the vertical is only 0.20 Sv, which is well below the standard error of the

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

pronounced and unprecedented ocean heat wave over the southern Tasman Sea in late 2015 to 2016, and linked it to changes in the East Australian Current. The latter is a western boundary current in the subtropical Pacific just off the east coast of Australia from the tropics to about 35°S but that spins off warm pool eddies farther south. Oliver et al. (2018) explored such ocean heat waves more generally and further noted the links to the East Australian Current. Tasman Sea marine heat waves were found

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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

Indian Ocean along the western boundary through the Agulhas Current ( Han and McCreary 2001 ). Song et al. (2004) examined the spreading pathways and time scales of the ITF waters in the Indian Ocean, and their Lagrangian trajectory experiment suggested that the ITF waters in the upper thermocline take about 10 years to transit from the Makassar Strait to the east coast of the African continent. On seasonal time scales, freshwater input due to rainfall and river discharge is important to the

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Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

-Pacific region. The MJO offers promising perspectives to forecast tropical rainfall with a lead time of a couple of weeks; however, current state-of-art weather forecasting models have systematic biases and cannot reproduce the MJO well (e.g., Kim et al. 2014 ), possibly because they do not represent air–sea interaction processes associated with the MJO ( DeMott et al. 2015 ). During boreal summer, intraseasonal oscillations display prominent northward–northeastward propagation and variability, extending

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Anurag Dipankar, Stuart Webster, Xiang-Yu Huang, and Van Quang Doan

rainfall to the model’s inability to adequately represent entrainment at convection-permitting resolution. The grid resolution is known to be critical in controlling the model biases, regardless of whether it is an underestimation ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Qian 2008 ) or an overestimation ( Hassim et al. 2016 ). However, biases in the initial and boundary conditions are important as well, more so for the regional simulations because of their dependency on the lateral boundary conditions (LBC). For

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

continental regimes of propagating diurnal MCSs is a horizontal phase speed of ~15–20 m s −1 ( Mapes et al. 2003b ; Carbone and Tuttle 2008 ). This phase speed and assessment of vertical wind profiles rules out the role of both basic advection and synoptic-scale Rossby waves. It is also too fast to be explained by convective cold pools; for density currents to propagate this fast requires associated temperature anomalies exceeding ~10 K ( Markowski and Richardson 2010 ). Cold pools of this magnitude are

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Ching-Shu Hung and Chung-Hsiung Sui

wave (~19 m s −1 ). The intraseasonal period of the MJO is determined by the time needed for the moist Kelvin wave to circumnavigate the globe. However, the speed of the moist Kelvin wave is still significantly faster than the observed MJO propagation speed (~5 m s −1 ), and the mode is most unstable in small wavelength, which is opposite to the observed planetary zonal scale. To solve these problems, Wang and Li (1994) introduced a boundary layer into the traditional wave-CISK model framework

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