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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

received considerable scrutiny in both the temporal and spatial domains ( Ferrari and Wunsch 2010 ). This has been possible through in situ observations, satellite altimeter data and modeling efforts. In the spatial domain, in situ observations are sparse and restricted to one-dimensional (1D) cuts of the two-dimensional (2D) surface velocity field, but have the advantage of high resolution. This allows for an exploration of surface currents at scales comparable to, and significantly smaller than, the

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Adam H. Sobel, Janet Sprintall, Eric D. Maloney, Zane K. Martin, Shuguang Wang, Simon P. de Szoeke, Benjamin C. Trabing, and Steven A. Rutledge

roughly 135°E (four transects in leg 1 and one transect in leg 2). All uCTD profiles were quality controlled for salinity spiking and processed according to Ullman and Hebert (2014) . The Thompson measured underway upper ocean velocity with 75-kHz narrowband and broadband shipboard acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) mounted in the hull. Here we use the narrowband currents, sampling from ~28-m depth to 980 m with vertical bins of 16 m. Shipboard ADCP velocity data were processed and

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

://doi.org/10.1175/JPO3074.1 . 10.1175/JPO3074.1 Kondo , J. , Y. Sasano , and T. Ishii , 1979 : On wind-driven current and temperature profiles with diurnal period in the oceanic planetary boundary layer . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 9 , 360 – 372 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1979)009<0360:OWDCAT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1979)009<0360:OWDCAT>2.0.CO;2 Kudryavtsev , V. N. , and A. V. Soloviev , 1990 : Slippery near-surface layer of the ocean arising due to daytime solar heating . J

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

in surface fluxes prior to ISO convective onset associated with downwelling waves. Instead, Rydbeck and Jensen (2017) suggested that tenacious warming of the sea surface resulting from horizontal advection by oceanic equatorial Rossby wave currents and a concomitant steepening of the SST gradient acted as a large-scale source of boundary layer upward motion (e.g., Lindzen and Nigam 1987 ; Back and Bretherton 2009 ) and moisture convergence. They estimated that SST forcing accounted for up to

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

://doi.org/10.1016/S1463-5003(02)00062-8 . 10.1016/S1463-5003(02)00062-8 Kondo , J. , Y. Sasano , and T. Ishii , 1979 : On wind-driven current and temperature profiles with diurnal period in the oceanic planetary boundary layer . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 9 , 360 – 372 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1979)009<0360:OWDCAT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1979)009<0360:OWDCAT>2.0.CO;2 Kraus , E. B. , 1987 : The torque and flux balances in the upper equatorial ocean . J. Geophys. Res. , 92 , 14

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

and generates swift near-inertial currents in the ocean. During the time of our observations, Phailin has a translation speed of 4.2 m s −1 , giving a value of equal to 0.9 ( Table 1 ) typical of many tropical cyclones. As expected, the observations described here show strong near-inertial resonance. However, the focus here is on the unique features of this storm that result from the unusual temperature and salinity stratification of the Bay of Bengal. Table 1. Basic characteristics of Cyclone

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

marks the Bay of Bengal region shown in Fig. 2 . White dots mark mooring locations. The monsoon imprints seasonality on the Bay’s circulation ( Schott et al. 2002 ; Shankar et al. 2002 ). The East India Coastal Current (EICC) spins up at the Bay’s western boundary during both monsoons, flowing northward between May and October and then southward between December and April. The EICC is readily visible in seasonally averaged estimates of near-surface ocean velocity [vectors in Figs. 2a–e from the

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

flatten to linear growth. Linear growth is expected for constant relative dispersion if pair separations grow larger than the dominant eddy size (≈100 km) and become uncorrelated ( Fig. 4 ). A possible explanation is that the Indian coast prevents drifters from spreading isotropically and drifters become entrained into the boundary current ( Fig. 1 ). Furthermore, dispersion calculated for large separations above 100 km has uncertainty, as only a small number of drifter pairs is available at this

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

exist between the mesoscales and intraseasonal-scale convective structures of the boreal summer MJO, in particular over the Maritime Continent. Within the simulation, the lateral boundaries are constrained with reanalysis, but mesoscale disturbances are permitted to freely develop within the interior of the domain. We then use spectral analysis to examine the low-frequency relationship between convective characteristics and the MJO, tying the relationship back to atmospheric state variables in a

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

generation of ECMWF atmospheric reanalyses of the global climate. Copernicus Climate Change Service Climate Data Store, accessed 21 November 2017, https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/home . Cotton , W. R. , and Coauthors , 2003 : RAMS 2001: Current status and future directions . Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 82 , 5 – 29 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-001-0584-9 . 10.1007/s00703-001-0584-9 Davies , H. C. , 1976 : A lateral boundary formulation for multi-level prediction models . Quart. J

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