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Kunio M. Sayanagi, Raúl Morales-Juberías, and Andrew P. Ingersoll

rest of the report is organized as follows: section 2 presents the setup of our numerical experiments, section 3 discusses our numerical experiments and their results, and section 4 reviews the relevant physical oceanography literature on the meandering ocean currents on Earth and compares them to the observed state of the Ribbon and our modeling results. We present conclusions in section 5 . 2. Model setup a. Numerical model We use the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) model

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Vincent Hohreiter

the lower boundary on the head of a gravity current. J. Fluid Mech. , 53 , 759 – 768 . Simpson , J. E. , 1997 : Gravity Currents in the Environment and the Laboratory . 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 244 pp . Simpson , J. E. , and R. E. Britter , 1980 : A laboratory model of an atmospheric mesofront. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 106 , 485 – 500 . Sun , J. , and Coauthors , 2001 : Intermittent turbulence associated with a density current passage in the stable boundary

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Ruping Mo

so that the potential temperature and the ambient buoyancy frequency N can be written as Here z is the vertical coordinate, represents an idealized ambient potential temperature profile with a constant value at and a constant vertical gradient , and is the potential temperature perturbation induced by radiative cooling in the boundary layer. The coordinates s and n are parallel and normal to the slope, respectively. The along-slope wind speed is positive for downslope flow

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Eric D. Skyllingstad and James B. Edson

adjacent to western boundary currents in the subtropical gyres (e.g., Dewar et al. 2005 ). One such mode water is present in the Atlantic basin south of the Gulf Stream at depths of 500 to 1500 m. Atlantic mode water is often named “eighteen-degree water” (EDW) because it has a temperature range of 17°–19°C. Mode water acts like a long-term memory for the climate system, storing information about the strength of air–sea fluxes from previous winter seasons. Because of the importance of EDW mode water

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Thomas Kilpatrick, Niklas Schneider, and Bo Qiu

, 2010 : Western boundary currents and frontal air–sea interaction: Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension . J. Climate , 23 , 5644 – 5667 , doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3346.1 . Kilpatrick , T. , N. Schneider , and B. Qiu , 2014 : Boundary layer convergence induced by strong winds across a midlatitude SST front . J. Climate , 27 , 1698 – 1718 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00101.1 . Kuwano-Yoshida , A. , S. Minobe , and S.-P. Xie , 2010 : Precipitation response to the Gulf Stream in an

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Haile Xue and Marco A. Giorgetta

1. Introduction This study focuses on the question why trapped lee waves triggered by small-scale steep mountains evolve diurnally with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind and stability and upper-level jet. The conventional linear theories can present theoretical solutions by using idealized models of two- or three-layer stability ( Scorer 1949 ; Corby and Wallington 1956 ; Scorer and Klieforth 1959 ; Sawyer 1960 ; Pearce and White 1967 ; Klemp and Lilly 1975 ; Zang et al. 2007

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Kirk Bryan

-state solution is approached asymptotically.Above this transition a train of moving disturbances forms in the boundary current due to shear flow instability. There is no tendency for the boundary current to break away from the wall in the region of maximumwind curl for the range of Reynolds numbers (0 through 100) investigated. In examining other mechanisms which might give rise to separation, it is found that recirculationsdevelop behind barriers pl~ced along the western wall. Recirculation in one case

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Kirk Bryan and Michael D. Cox

which form along the side walls of the basin. A detailed description is made of the three-dimensional velocity and temperature patterns obtained fromthe final stage of the run. Since inertial effects play an important role in the western boundary current, itis possible to verify with a baroclinic model two results obtained previously with barotropic ocean models:1) a concentrated outflow from the western boundary takes place along the upper boundary of the subtropicwind gyre; and 2) inertial

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Robert W. Jones

substantially agree with the theory of vortex motion with friction (Kuo, 1969). Thevortex path is trochoidal and the mean vortex motion (exclusive of the trochoidal oscillation) is about 5-to the right of the steering current (mid-troposphere current in this case). The deflection of the patlx is aconsequence of boundary layer frictional drag forces on the vortex. The period of the trochoidal oscillationis about 15 h and the amplitude about 15 km. The motion of a mature, tropical cyclone model vortex with

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G. J. Steeneveld, B. J. H. van de Wiel, and A. A. M. Holtslag

satisfactorily modeled over a broad range of atmospheric stability with the current understanding of the stable boundary layer physics. Therefore, we have studied the development of the atmospheric boundary layer over land for a three-day period including three different archetypes for stable conditions. These archetypes are (i) a fully turbulent night, (ii) an intermittently turbulent night, and (iii) a radiation-driven night. To ensure vertical resolution was not a limiting issue, we use very high

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