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A. A. M. Holtslag, G. Svensson, P. Baas, S. Basu, B. Beare, A. C. M. Beljaars, F. C. Bosveld, J. Cuxart, J. Lindvall, G. J. Steeneveld, M. Tjernström, and B. J. H. Van De Wiel

illustrate the current status and developments. The performance of NWP and climate models during stably stratified conditions is part of the underpinning for the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS) and here findings from the three GABLS model intercomparison studies are presented. Based on these results it is indeed clear that operational models typically have too much mixing in stable conditions. This strongly impacts the diurnal cycles of temperature, wind, and related variables. Enhanced

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P. Tchipalanga, M. Dengler, P. Brandt, R. Kopte, M. Macuéria, P. Coelho, M. Ostrowski, and N. S. Keenlyside

. 2008 ; Monteiro et al. 2011 ; Schmidtko et al. 2017 ). The ocean currents at the continental margin represent a typical tropical eastern boundary circulation system dominated by the poleward-flowing Angola Current. Predominately during austral summer, the Angola Current is thought to transport warm and saline, low-oxygen South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) southward into the coastal upwelling region, possibly resulting in hypoxic to anoxic conditions on the shelf ( Mohrholz et al. 2008

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Emily Shroyer, Amit Tandon, M. Ravichandran, Debasis Sengupta, S. U. P. Jinadasa, Harindra J. S. Fernando, Neeraj Agrawal, K. Arulananthan, G. S. Bhat, Mark Baumgartner, Jared Buckley, Luca Centurioni, Patrick Conry, J. Thomas Farrar, Arnold L. Gordon, Verena Hormann, Ewa Jarosz, Tommy G. Jensen, Shaun Johnston, Matthias Lankhorst, Craig M. Lee, Laura S. Leo, Iossif Lozovatsky, Andrew J. Lucas, Jennifer Mackinnon, Amala Mahadevan, Jonathan Nash, Melissa M. Omand, Hieu Pham, Robert Pinkel, Luc Rainville, Sanjiv Ramachandran, Daniel L. Rudnick, Sutanu Sarkar, Uwe Send, Rashmi Sharma, Harper Simmons, Kathleen M. Stafford, Louis St. Laurent, Karan Venayagamoorthy, Ramasamy Venkatesan, William J. Teague, David W. Wang, Amy F. Waterhouse, Robert Weller, and Caitlin B. Whalen

throughout the BoB from diurnal to seasonal time scales; examine the role of the freshwater distribution on SST, mixed layer depth, barrier layer strength and evolution, stratification, and currents; characterize the coastal boundary current, tides, internal waves, and mixing around Sri Lanka in relation to interbasin exchanges; improve quantitative understanding of seasonally varying mesoscale phenomena (e.g., the Sri Lanka dome and transbasin eddies) and their influence on air–sea interaction; observe

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Daniel Leuenberger, Alexander Haefele, Nadja Omanovic, Martin Fengler, Giovanni Martucci, Bertrand Calpini, Oliver Fuhrer, and Andrea Rossa

.1175/JTECH-D-13-00236.1 EUMETNET , 2020 : EUMETNET E-PROFILE. EUMETNET, accessed 4 February 2020, www.eumetnet.eu/activities/observations-programme/current-activities/e-profile/ . Everett , L. , 2018 : The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling . National Academies Press, 58 pp., https://doi.org/10.17226/25138 . 10.17226/25138 Fengler , M. , 2017 : Method and device for determining physical quantities at a plurality of locations. U.S. Patent 9 696 458 B2, 9 pp

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Julie K. Lundquist, James M. Wilczak, Ryan Ashton, Laura Bianco, W. Alan Brewer, Aditya Choukulkar, Andrew Clifton, Mithu Debnath, Ruben Delgado, Katja Friedrich, Scott Gunter, Armita Hamidi, Giacomo Valerio Iungo, Aleya Kaushik, Branko Kosović, Patrick Langan, Adam Lass, Evan Lavin, Joseph C.-Y. Lee, Katherine L. McCaffrey, Rob K. Newsom, David C. Noone, Steven P. Oncley, Paul T. Quelet, Scott P. Sandberg, John L. Schroeder, William J. Shaw, Lynn Sparling, Clara St. Martin, Alexandra St. Pe, Edward Strobach, Ken Tay, Brian J. Vanderwende, Ann Weickmann, Daniel Wolfe, and Rochelle Worsnop

.3 s (from 6° to 1.5° s −1 ). Four time periods exhibiting good data quality and large wind speed variability were selected for the dual-Doppler analysis. Both the dual-Doppler retrieval and the 150-m BAO tower sonic anemometers captured the wind speed ramp and evolving wind direction ( Fig. 8 ) associated with the passage of a boundary that resembled a density current in the TTUKa RHI scans (not shown). Mean wind speed profiles during this time demonstrated excellent agreement. Wind directions

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Brian Billings, Stephen A. Cohn, Rodney J. Kubesh, and William O. J. Brown

several previous DOW educational requests and list 32 such deployments between 2008 and 2016. The frequency of DOW requests is likely due to several factors, including the easy integration into a course on radar meteorology, student familiarity through the media, and its use in educational outreach prior to the current NSF program, such as at The Pennsylvania State University from 2003 to 2005 as described by Richardson et al. (2008) . Operating in the X band, the DOWs require active weather

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David M. Schultz, Yvette P. Richardson, Paul M. Markowski, and Charles A. Doswell III

. Maddox , R. A. , L. R. Hoxit , and C. F. Chappell , 1980 : A study of tornadic thunderstorm interactions with thermal boundaries . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 108 , 322 – 336 , doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1980)1082.0.CO;2 . Markowski , P. M. , and Y. P. Richardson , 2009 : Tornadogenesis: Our current understanding, forecasting considerations, and questions to guide future research . Atmos. Res. , 93 , 3 – 10 , doi:10.1016/j .atmosres.2008.09.015 . Markowski , P. M. , and Y. P. Richardson

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P. N. Vinayachandran, Adrian J. Matthews, K. Vijay Kumar, Alejandra Sanchez-Franks, V. Thushara, Jenson George, V. Vijith, Benjamin G. M. Webber, Bastien Y. Queste, Rajdeep Roy, Amit Sarkar, Dariusz B. Baranowski, G. S. Bhat, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Simon C. Peatman, C. Parida, Karen J. Heywood, Robert Hall, Brian King, Elizabeth C. Kent, Anoop A. Nayak, C. P. Neema, P. Amol, A. Lotliker, A. Kankonkar, D. G. Gracias, S. Vernekar, A. C. D’Souza, G. Valluvan, Shrikant M. Pargaonkar, K. Dinesh, Jack Giddings, and Manoj Joshi

southern BoB. The BoB Boundary Layer Experiment (BoBBLE) focuses on the less known, yet important, southern BoB and combines observations from multiple instruments, including five ocean gliders, to obtain high-quality time series observations of the ocean, air–sea interface, and atmosphere during the peak period of the 2016 summer monsoon. The first set of measurements in the region was carried out by Schott et al. (1994) using current meter moorings and ship sections in the early 1990s, which

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Leigh Orf, Robert Wilhelmson, Bruce Lee, Catherine Finley, and Adam Houston

presents three-dimensional streamwise vorticity shortly following tornadogenesis. The SVC bears some resemblance to the rotor simulated by Schenkman et al. (2012) but the SVC extends deeper into the forward flank and, unlike the rotor, the SVC vorticity cannot be attributed to surface friction owing to the free-slip lower boundary condition. F ig . 10. Volume-rendered storm-relative 3D streamwise vorticity at t = 5,100 s, looking toward the southeast. The tornado and streamwise vorticity current

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John T. Sullivan, Timothy Berkoff, Guillaume Gronoff, Travis Knepp, Margaret Pippin, Danette Allen, Laurence Twigg, Robert Swap, Maria Tzortziou, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Glenn M. Wolfe, James Flynn, Sally E. Pusede, Laura M. Judd, William Moore, Barry D. Baker, Jay Al-Saadi, and Thomas J. McGee

network of Pandora systems currently deployed ( http://pandonia.net ). PGN is supported by operating partners at NASA and the ESA. To augment surface and airborne sampling of trace gases, Pandora spectrometer systems were deployed at several key sites (including on board the R/V SERC ) during the OWLETS campaign. Pandora is useful in the monitoring of air quality because of its ability to sample column pollutants at high temporal resolution (every minute) and its sensitivity to boundary layer NO 2

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