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Bunmei Taguchi, Niklas Schneider, Masami Nonaka, and Hideharu Sasaki

anomalous advection of spiciness. Questions to be addressed are the following: What are the relative contribution of Rossby waves and spiciness to total OHC variability and what are their regional difference in the North Pacific, particularly in relation to western boundary current variability? What are the spatiotemporal structure, the propagation feature, and the origin of each process contributing to the OHC variability? The rest of the manuscript is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, and Takafumi Miyasaka

1. Introduction The midlatitude western boundary currents, which flow poleward along the western flank of each of the ocean basins, transport an enormous amount of heat from the tropics, releasing it into the midlatitude atmosphere in the form of turbulent sensible heat flux (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) while maintaining relatively warm sea surface temperature (SST) along their axes. The midlatitude oceanic frontal zones, which are characterized by steep gradients in SST along the poleward

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

/Kuroshio Extension is always smaller than that of latent heat fluxes during the growth phase of the cyclone, H15 did not consider roles of sensible heat supply from those currents in the CCB–LH feedback process. However, the sensible heat supply from the ocean acts to decrease the static stability in the lower troposphere (e.g., Kuo et al. 1991a ; Neiman and Shapiro 1993 ; Reed et al. 1993 ). Moreover, the increase in temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer by sensible heating may lead to a rise in

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Yoshi N. Sasaki and Chisato Umeda

. In addition, long-term observational data are available on SST. Importantly, SST warming is not spatially uniform. For example, previous studies have identified particularly fast warming along western boundary currents (e.g., Wu et al. 2012 ; Yang et al. 2016 ). Clarifying the mechanisms of this fast warming is important for understanding climate change (e.g., Small et al. 2008 ; Kelly et al. 2010 ). In the present study, we focus the SST warming in the East China Sea ( Fig. 1 ), a marginal

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

’s ocean component that does not resolve oceanic mesoscale eddies, the CFES integration represents salient features of the North Pacific Ocean’s circulation and variability. Most prominent in the mean field are the two extensions of western boundary currents in the so-called Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension (KOE) region 1 : the subarctic front (SAF) and the Kuroshio Extension (KE) (e.g., Mizuno and White 1983 ; Yuan and Talley 1996 ; Yasuda 2003 ; Nonaka et al. 2006 ). The former is characterized by

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

–O cyclone forecasting errors. Over the northwestern Pacific Ocean and northwestern Atlantic Ocean, the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension and the Gulf Stream (i.e., western boundary currents) supply a large amount of heat and moisture to the midlatitude atmosphere (e.g., Kelly et al. 2010 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ). Several previous studies have shown that the supply of heat and moisture contributed to the rapid development of extratropical cyclones through decreased atmospheric stability and increased latent

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, and Robert A. Tomas

both simulations, 35 years of data from the end of the run have been analyzed. b. Observational products of SST and latent heat flux In this paper the observational analysis of SST used as a benchmark is Reynolds et al. (2007) , a daily dataset of 0.25° SST obtained from satellite and in situ data. The in situ and satellite data are combined using optimal interpolation with error correlation scales ranging from 50 km in western boundary currents and their extensions (referred to together in this

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Yi-Hui Wang and W. Timothy Liu

1. Introduction The air–sea interaction over western boundary currents and their extension is substantially stronger than in other regions. The large amounts of heat and moisture that are released from warm ocean currents to the overlying atmosphere during winter play a key role in Earth’s energy transport and climate variability ( Kelly and Dong 2004 ). The impacts of western boundary currents on the atmosphere range from frontal to basin scales. At the basin scale, Nakamura et al. (2004

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuaki Nishii, and Bo Qiu

, Y.-O. Kwon , and M. F. Cronin , 2010 : Western boundary currents and frontal air–sea interaction: Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension . J. Climate , 23 , 5644 – 5667 , doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3346.1 . Kida , S. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Oceanic fronts and jets around Japan: A review . J. Oceanogr. , 71 , 469 – 497 , doi: 10.1007/s10872-015-0283-7 . Kilpatrick , T. , N. Schneider , and B. Qiu , 2014 : Boundary layer convergence induced by strong winds across a midlatitude SST

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Kohei Takatama and Niklas Schneider

and the vertical mixing mechanisms remain unclear. A linearized model ( Schneider and Qiu 2015 ) suggests the back pressure affects both mechanisms, and thermally induced Ekman pumping has been suggested as an important agent to couple the boundary layer to the free troposphere ( Feliks et al. 2004 ; Feliks et al. 2007 ). Here, the direct influence of oceanic currents on the turbulent drag on lower atmosphere—the “mechanical effect” ( Bye 1986 ; Pacanowski 1987 ; Cornillon and Park 2001

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