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Mark R. Jury

1. Introduction The ocean stores heat and drives the Earth’s water cycle, while integrating surface energy exchanges and providing memory of past fluxes to sustain atmospheric anomalies. Heat imbalances generate atmosphere and ocean circulations, which seek to minimize those gradients. Western boundary currents that transport warm tropical water poleward along the continental margins play a key role by contributing surplus energy to passing storms. Conversely, eastern boundary currents that

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Paul A. T. Higgins and Jonah V. Steinbuck

biological systems respond), and social sciences (e.g., how effectively humanity can adapt to and cope with impacts). Furthermore, subjective views and value judgments heavily influence how individuals perceive both the risks of climate change and the potential benefits and costs of risk management options ( Leiserowitz et al. 2011a , b ). A wide range of modeling approaches is currently used to explore the societal consequences of climate change, each of which contributes significantly to our assessment

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Eugene S. Takle, Daniel A. Rajewski, and Samantha L. Purdy

cropland outside of wind farms. Turbulence is the fundamental process that regulates fluxes throughout the lower boundary layer. These fluxes regulate the interception of light (through plant movement that illuminates lower leaves) and transport of heat, water, and carbon dioxide within the crop canopy and drive the biophysical processes that influence vegetative growth, reproductive development, and overall yield ( Campbell and Norman 2000 ). Commodity crops currently grown in the United States have

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Xin-Zhong Liang, Hyun I. Choi, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Yongjiu Dai, Everette Joseph, Julian X. L. Wang, and Praveen Kumar

representation of surface–atmosphere interactions, which generally requires specification of surface boundary conditions (SBCs) over both land and oceans. However, there is no universal, complete set of SBCs that satisfies all models. For example, the WRF release version 2 included the six-layer Rapid Uptake Cycle (RUC; Smirnova et al. 2000 ) and the four-layer Noah ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Ek et al. 2003 ) land surface models (LSMs), while the CWRF added the 11-layer Common Land Model (CLM; Dai et al

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Weile Wang, Bruce T. Anderson, Dara Entekhabi, Dong Huang, Yin Su, Robert K. Kaufmann, and Ranga B. Myneni

–October) monthly anomalies during a growing season to the seven monthly anomalies during the next growing season. This approach extends the data length of each time series to 133 months (7 growing-season months × 19 yr from 1982 to 2000). Compiling the data this way assumes that the vegetation–climate interactions do not vary during the growing season, such that NDVI (temperature/precipitation) anomalies from the preceding month have the same influence on current temperature/precipitation (NDVI) variations

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Jianjun Ge, Nathan Torbick, and Jiaguo Qi

underlying soil and vegetation surfaces. As numerical modeling of atmospheric processes has progressed and research on human impacts on climate change has become more urgent over the past decade, the need for accurate characterization of the land surface as boundary conditions in climate modeling is becoming widely recognized (e.g., Dickinson 1995 ; Sellers et al. 1997 ; Pielke et al. 1998 ; Bonan et al. 2004 ; Feddema et al. 2005 ; Ge et al. 2007 ). Land-cover products have been used in the soil

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Patricia M. Lawston, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Brian Hanson, and Kristi Arsensault

modeling to 1) explore whether irrigation has historically impacted summer maximum temperatures in the Columbia Plateau, 2) characterize the current extent of irrigation impacts to soil moisture (SM) and land surface temperature (LST), and 3) better understand the downstream extent of irrigation’s influence on near-surface temperature, humidity, and boundary layer development. 3. Data and methods 3.1. Historical temperature data We use maximum daily temperature (TMAX) from the Global Historical

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G. T. Narisma and A. J. Pitman

and 5.68° longitude and includes nine vertical layers for the atmosphere. Climate simulations performed using the CSIRO model included A2 (high CO 2 increase) and B2 (moderate CO 2 increase) scenarios (see Nakicenovic et al. 2000 ). We updated boundary conditions for GEMRAMS every 12 h, which was found to be acceptable for simulations at a grid spacing of around 45 km by Denis et al. ( Denis et al. 2003 ). To provide baseline values, we performed experiments with past (pre-European) and current

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Wanli Wu, Amanda H. Lynch, Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, A. David McGuire, and Ute Herzfeld

Grell deep convective parameterization ( Grell et al. 1994 ), the Medium-Range Forecasting (MRF) planetary boundary layer scheme ( Hong and Pan 1996 ), and the Reisner explicit cloud microphysics parameterization ( Reisner et al. 1998 ). This latter parameterization predicts the mixing ratio of cloud water and ice crystals as well as the rain and snow water mixing ratios. The Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM; Mlawer et al. 1997 ) is chosen for longwave radiation, and the delta

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Brandon J. Vogt

coordinate boundaries of the study area. Comparing the sums of actual strikes (actual distribution) to randomly generated points (expected distribution) collected in the buffers served as the basis to confirm or reject the notion that CG strikes favor highpoints. These actual-to-random comparisons by buffer size and by kiloamp class served as the basis to evaluate the notion that a positive relationship exists between striking distance and peak current. 3.3. Data analysis techniques Two

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