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Michael A. Spall

baroclinic instability (e.g., Gawarkiewicz and Chapman 1995 ; Jiang and Garwood 1996 ), which includes a downwelling component. While there are some regions and times for which this localized, isolated forcing is applicable, over most of the high latitude and marginal seas there exist strong cyclonic boundary currents that have not been considered in these problems ( Cuny et al. 2002 ; Mauritzen 1996a , b ). These boundary currents transport large amounts of heat and freshwater into/out of the basins

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R. M. Samelson

circumpolar-current eddy fluxes. For the present model ( section 2 ), both numerical ( section 3 ) and analytical ( section 4 ) solutions are obtained for the circulation in the warm-water layer and the three components of the warm-water balance; the results illustrate basic dynamical elements of this balance, including the central role of the eastern boundary thermocline depth ( section 5 ). 2. Model Let the warm-water branch of the meridional overturning circulation be represented ( Fig. 1 ) by a single

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Baylor Fox-Kemper and Raffaele Ferrari

approximated from linear theory 5 or even from eddy-permitting simulations. 6 Here the general form (12) will be carried throughout the analysis, but the solutions plotted use κ = 2000 m 2 s −1 and 𝗔 as the identity matrix. 3. A noninertial, adiabatic, reduced gravity solution So far, the mean flow remains arbitrarily inertial and nonlinear (  f ∼ , Δ h ∼ h ). To proceed analytically the mean flow is restricted to small Rossby number . The western boundary current solution is thus limited, but

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Paola Cessi and Christopher L. Wolfe

geostrophic all the way into the eastern boundary layer and the barotropic streamfunction is constant along the eastern boundary. The effective boundary condition (7) is not very accurate near the western boundary, where advection of buoyancy and momentum by the mean flow is important. The advection by a barotropic boundary current is easily included in the effective boundary condition, but this effect is not considered here and is deferred to a future study. 3. A linear model of the thermocline We

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Onno Bokhove and Vijaya Ambati

1. Introduction There is evidence that planetary-scale Rossby waves have been generated off the western coast of the United States, either by unstable coastal boundary currents or by coastal waves matching in frequency and scale (cf. Kelly et al. 1998 ). Bokhove and Johnson (1999) , therefore, investigated the matching of planetary Rossby modes with coastal shelf modes in a cylindrical basin. Otherwise said, linear free modes were calculated with so-called semianalytical “mode matching

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K. Shafer Smith and John Marshall

, for enhanced particle exchange at the steering level. Satellite altimetric observations of the Southern Ocean do suggest the presence of large-scale waves that propagate downstream in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) at a rate significantly slower (25%) than that of surface currents. This was anticipated by Hughes (1996) in studies of an eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean where it was argued that the eastward flow of the ACC turned it into a Rossby waveguide. The top panel of Fig

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J. A. Whitehead

of freshwater from continental runoff. The cavity itself was confined laterally to prevent spreading out of the layer of salty water. In the same way, the layer of freshwater that leaves the Arctic Ocean is confined to narrow boundary currents along the Greenland coast and by shallows and islands in the Canadian archipelago. The mixing between the saltwater layer in the cavity and the overlying freshwater has a counterpart in the Arctic Ocean. Freshwater of the halocline mixes down into the salty

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Yafang Zhong and Zhengyu Liu

midlatitude KOE region. This lead–lag relation is better illustrated in the vertical transect along a track in the western Pacific from the subpolar region to the subtropics (marked in Fig. 3b , third row) in Fig. 4 . Note that the mean boundary current flows largely along the transect at the subpolar latitudes. From a lag of −16 yr ( Fig. 4 , top), the warm saline anomaly in the subpolar region appears to be advected southward by the Oyashio in the surface 200 m (winter mixed layer), leading to the

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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

) to earlier near-optimized solutions (v2.216 and v3.22) display nearly indistinguishable results, supporting the inference of a now stable estimate. Readers unfamiliar with the details of the ECCO–GODAE methods need only be aware that the estimates used here are computed from a freely running forward model, whose initial–boundary conditions have been adjusted by least squares so that the model comes as close as practical to the data within estimated error estimates: unlike some other approaches

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