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Hui Wu

with large bottom friction r , but also with decreased shelf slope. Here in this study, we focus on the structure of the shelf circulation induced by an open ocean pressure anomaly on a β plane. This was motivated by an attempt to explain the dynamics driving the East China Sea (ECS; Fig. 2a ) circulation. The ECS shelf is on the western boundary of the subtropical North Pacific Ocean, with the mighty western boundary current, Kuroshio, flowing poleward on its shelf break. On its inner shelf

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

boundary layer structure by generating island wind-wakes extending several hundreds of kilometers in the downstream direction ( Xie et al. 2001 ). The upper-ocean current interactions and the modified wind stress curl in the wake of the island are associated with biologically productive upwelling zones. Eddies and island wakes have received more attention from observational programs due to their local impact on biology and chemistry ( Barton et al. 2000 ; Basterretxea et al. 2002 ). There are numerous

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Matthew H. Alford, Daniel L. Rudnick, Gunnar Voet, and Hemantha Wijesekera

varying the base of the surface layer from 50 to 150 m. The subsurface layer is well below the pycnocline and above the bottom boundary. Correlation values within this layer are above 0.8 in all bands due to the large vertical length scales of the NEUC and tide, and absence of energetic mixed layer currents. Correlation values between velocity at any depth level in the surface and subsurface layer are less than 0.3, which supports treating them independently. Fig . 2. Example section of (a) zonal and

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Andrew L. Stewart, James C. McWilliams, and Aviv Solodoch

early theories of gyre circulation, in which the net wind stress curl was balanced in a western boundary current by either frictional drag at the sea floor ( Stommel 1948 ), or by lateral stresses associated with an “eddy” viscosity Munk (1950) . These early theories were posed in an ocean basin with flat bathymetry, or for fluid above the main thermocline that did not interact dynamically with the sea floor ( Pedlosky 2013 ). It has subsequently been shown that bathymetry, and particularly the

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Shuwen Tan, Larry J. Pratt, Dongliang Yuan, Xiang Li, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep S. Budiman, and Ahmad Bayhaqi

and with our edge definitions, our estimate of the transport below Θ = 3.6°, 3.4°, 3.2°, and 3.0°C are 2.8, 2.4, 2.0, and 1.5 Sv, respectively. However, uncertainties exist due to assumptions of laterally uniform flow and of the location of the southwest boundary. Flows in sea straits are often concentrated in a jet (e.g., Siddall et al. 2004 ) or a boundary current ( Gill 1977 ). We rule out the possibility of the overflow being a boundary current since the local deformation radius g ′ D / | f

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Madeleine M. Hamann, Matthew H. Alford, Andrew J. Lucas, Amy F. Waterhouse, and Gunnar Voet

Workhorse acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and a McLane moored profiler. The McLane profiler carried a SeaBird (SBE) 52 CTD and a Falmouth Scientific acoustic current meter (ACM) and made full-depth profiles every 15 min. Onshore of the bifurcation point, mooring T1 reached 240-m depth and consisted of 36 SBE56 thermistors and two SBE37 CTDs spaced 3–8 m apart (denser spacing near the thermocline) and a downward-looking 75 kHz Workhorse ADCP. At the head of the canyon in 105-m depth, station WW

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Frederick T. Mayer and Oliver B. Fringer

to Ocean Modell. ) show that the dimensionless steady-state nonhydrostatic linear form drag per wavelength is given by (3) F lin ρ 0 U 3 N − 1 = { π 4 J 2 ⁡ ( 1 − ϵ 2 ) 1 / 2 , ϵ < 1 , 0 , ϵ ≥ 1. Equation (3) indicates that the nondimensional drag on the background current associated with generating lee waves grows in proportion to J 2 , but decreases with decreasing hill length (increasing ϵ ) until the evanescent boundary L hill = λ lee , beyond which the steady-state drag vanishes. Fig

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Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

needed to help elucidate processes and ground truth numerical models. Here we use satellite altimetry together with in situ data to examine SSH variability at time scales ranging from tidal to interannual near Palau, an island group at the southern end of the Kyushu–Palau Ridge in the western North Pacific ( Fig. 1 ), which sits near the boundary between the westward-flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC) and the eastward-flowing North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). We use the observations to

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Jody M. Klymak, Dhruv Balwada, Alberto Naveira Garabato, and Ryan Abernathey

.1002/2015JC011597 . 10.1002/2015JC011597 Buijsman , M. C. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Three-dimensional double-ridge internal tide resonance in Luzon Strait . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 44 , 850 – 869 , . 10.1175/JPO-D-13-024.1 Clément , L. , E. Frajka-Williams , K. L. Sheen , J. A. Brearley , and A. C. N. Garabato , 2016 : Generation of internal waves by eddies impinging on the western boundary of the North Atlantic . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 46 , 1067

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Daniel L. Rudnick, and Jennifer A. MacKinnon

1. Introduction Island wakes may be a significant sink of momentum for ocean currents and a source of vorticity in the interior, thus transforming incident currents. Islands in the path of energetic flows are often observed to have leeward flow reversals that are associated with the separation of a topographic boundary current ( Heywood et al. 1990 ). This recirculation may detach in the form of wake eddies, which can transport trapped water mass properties and vorticity up to hundreds of

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