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Hamish A. Ramsay, Lance M. Leslie, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

, complementing previous studies in which large environmental vertical shear has been shown to play a dominant role in determining TC asymmetries (e.g., Rogers et al. 2003 ; Braun and Wu 2007 ). When the environmental vertical shear is low, as in the current simulation, the asymmetric boundary layer convergence caused by the translation of the TC itself can become the primary mechanism forcing the inner-core asymmetries, in accordance with previous theoretical and modeling studies. Acknowledgments The

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Howard B. Bluestein

event and possibly other events. 2. Synoptic-scale and mesoscale environment a. Upper-air and surface features An upper-level trough, whose axis was located near the Nevada–Utah border, was positioned far upstream ( Fig. 1 ) both prior to and just after storm initiation; consequently, any strong synoptic-scale ascent associated with the trough was far west of Kansas and the Texas and Oklahoma Panhandles. There were three distinct surface boundaries in the plains ( Fig. 2 ). (a) A stationary front

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Huijun Wang and Ke Fan

tier” approaches have been applied from the very beginning of dynamical seasonal climate prediction. In these models, the predictions are made by the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with prescribed (or forecasted) sea surface temperatures (SST) and other boundary conditions. Multimodel superensemble predictions have been used in climate prediction to produce more reliable probability forecasts in recent years ( Krishnamurti et al. 1999 ; Palmer 2001 ). Two well-known projects

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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

equatorial ocean current/countercurrent system (e.g., Hansen and Paul 1984 ; Qiao and Weisberg 1998 ; Masina and Philander 1999 ). Data analyses and modeling studies indicate that they have significant effects on ocean thermal and dynamical fields. For example, it has been demonstrated that TIWs are important to the meridional transport of heat near the equator (e.g., Bryden and Brady 1989 ; Kessler et al. 1998 ; Vialard et al. 2003 ; Jochum and Murtugudde 2006 ; Jochum et al. 2005 , 2007

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Jianhua Sun and Sixiong Zhao

layer, 2) below the freezing layer there is a warm layer (melting layer) and an inversion, and 3) close to surface there is a thin layer with temperatures less than 0°C. However, similar vertical structures in temperature were not found in the eastern part of the front ( Figs. 12d–f ). Therefore, freezing rain did not appear in the eastern part of the front, and its 0°C isotherm at the surface was indeed the boundary between the rain and the snow areas. To discuss the influences of frontogenesis on

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