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Charles D. Koven, William J. Riley, and Alex Stern

conductivity, and whether soil physical properties are effected by geographically varying soil organic matter. The purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) to document the behavior, in comparison with observations, of the permafrost-relevant aspects of these models in the current climate and 2) to compare the model predictions of future changes with permafrost under climate change. By providing a framework for assessing realism of the models, we hope to lay a foundation for benchmarking the frozen-soil physics

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, and Colm Sweeney

of the Southern Ocean (e.g., Mikaloff Fletcher et al. 2007 ; Lovenduski et al. 2007 ). Takahashi et al. (2009) and Lovenduski et al. (2007 , 2008 ), among others, have speculated that the strong poleward shift of the westerly winds since the 1960s, which is associated with the positive index of the southern annular mode, has produced stronger upwelling at and south of the fronts in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) system. This strong poleward shift of the winds has also brought DIC

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Alan J. Hewitt, Ben B. B. Booth, Chris D. Jones, Eddy S. Robertson, Andy J. Wiltshire, Philip G. Sansom, David B. Stephenson, and Stan Yip

concentrations, and land-use change. The dominant driver of future radiative forcing for each RCP is the CO 2 concentration pathway ( Fig. 1a ) along with the fossil fuel emissions associated with that pathway ( Fig. 1b ) from each IAM that generated the scenario. According to the concentration-driven experiment design in CMIP5 ( Taylor et al. 2012 ), each GCM performs simulations from a preindustrial state (typically representative of 1850) up to 2100, using these CO 2 concentrations as a boundary

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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

tissue carbon content], and Rg is assumed to be proportional to the total new growth on a given time step [Eq. (B5) ]: If A < Rm (e.g., at night or under conditions of low light or drought stress), then all of the current A directed toward satisfying Rm and Rg is taken as zero. Some models assume that Rm is linearly related to the nitrogen content of living tissue and raised to the power of T . Thus, low T generally curtails Ra. Rh represents the decomposition of soil carbon from dead plant

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