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Tim Bardsley, Andrew Wood, Mike Hobbins, Tracie Kirkham, Laura Briefer, Jeff Niermeyer, and Steven Burian

United States ( Gillies et al. 2012 ; Knowles et al. 2006 ). If this trend continues, the region will see further decreases in snowpack, earlier snowmelt, and a shifting to earlier runoff ( Clow 2010 ; Barnett et al. 2005 ; Barnett et al. 2008 ). Prior studies project significant impacts on water providers' abilities to meet summer water demands with current water storage infrastructure ( Ray et al. 2008 ; Chambers 2008 ; Karl et al. 2009 ; Woodbury et al. 2012 ). Moreover, although traditional

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M. Sekhar, M. Shindekar, Sat K. Tomer, and P. Goswami

applicable sea surface temperature (SST) variations as boundary conditions in the GCM in order to address the uncertainties in the climate trends. Detailed reviews were made addressing the gaps ( Dragoni and Sukhija 2008 ; Earman and Dettinger 2011 ), but the climate change impacts on urban groundwater systems have not received the desired attention. Furthermore, there is yet limited information on addressing impacts from a combination of climate change and management scenarios ( Risbey et al. 2007

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

river basins. The scale at which LULC changes impact atmospheric patterns varies based on the process that is affected. In general, such impacts are less observed in larger scales ( Blöschl et al. 2007 ). The atmospheric process can be affected to a larger extent than hydrological processes as these hydrological processes are bounded by physical watershed boundary unlike atmospheric processes ( Woldemichael et al. 2012 ; Yigzaw et al. 2012 ). The worst case is when both the atmospheric and

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Brandon L. Parkes, Hannah L. Cloke, Florian Pappenberger, Jeff Neal, and David Demeritt

inflow (and outflow) boundary conditions of the hydraulic model itself (see, e.g., Neal et al. 2011 ). Surveys to collect remotely sensed imagery of the extent of the flood are an extremely valuable source of observational data, especially for 2D models where the image cannot only be used as a global calibration dataset of the model domain but also as a source of information for understanding and improving the model structure ( Schumann et al. 2009 ). Prior to the invention of digital imagery

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