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Md. Abul Ehsan Bhuiyan, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

September ( Cattani et al. 2016 , 2018 ). The study area in Peru has 323 rain gauges and elevations range from sea level to 5020 m MSL. Area average annual precipitation is 713 mm and maximum area average daily precipitation is 540 mm. The semiarid Pacific coastline experiences less than 100 mm precipitation per year due to the cold von Humboldt Current ( Manz et al. 2016 ). Precipitation increases toward the Andes driven by strong topographic gradients ( Espinoza et al. 2015 ; Espinoza Villar et al

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Andrea Camplani, Daniele Casella, Paolo Sanò, and Giulia Panegrossi

of tests on low-frequency MW channels and their combinations, selected on the basis of previous studies on the MW spectrum dependencies on snowpack physical conditions. The most useful aspect of the algorithm is that it exploits channel frequencies common to most current and future microwave radiometers in space (from 23 to 90 GHz), and that it can be applied to both conically scanning and cross-track-scanning radiometers. In this study a comparison between the results obtained for the conically

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Zeinab Takbiri, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and F. Joseph Turk

Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to account for effects of the background snow-cover emission. We demonstrate that the algorithm shows improved skill in detection of snowfall over snow cover and can predict the likelihood of precipitation phase changes in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is not well observed by the GPM radar. In summary, the presented algorithm isolates a few physically relevant candidate vectors of brightness temperatures in the database via a weighted Euclidean

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Xinxuan Zhang and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

study. c. Numerical weather simulations To simulate storm events in the different study areas, we used the numerical Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, version 3.7.1 ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). The periods of our WRF storm simulations ranged from 1 to 5 days, with a 12-h spinup prior to each. We initialized and constrained the simulations at the model boundaries by NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) final analysis fields of 0.5° or 1° ( ), depending

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Veljko Petković, Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Jeffrey R. Pierce, and John K. Kodros

is defined as the difference between the 2-m temperature and dewpoint. A vertical humidity deviation is defined as the ratio between specific humidity at low- and midtropospheric levels (850 and 500 mb, respectively). To ensure that the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) does not affect these results, midlevel humidity is taken as a mean value of 450 and 500 mb, while low-level humidity is required to be within the PBL (e.g., 850 mb). To minimize the effect of precipitation on the

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