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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

precipitation, but also an estimate of uncertainty of the retrieval itself (see Elsaesser and Kummerow 2015 ). The GPROF retrieval scheme has undergone a number of modifications over time to improve the retrievals, including improvements to the radiative transfer model used in the generation of the a priori database, freezing-level heights over the oceans, discrimination of regions of stratiform versus convective precipitation, cold surface screening, etc. (see Kummerow et al. 2001 ). The current GPROF

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

microphysics processes, accretion of supercooled cloud droplets onto ice crystals, and collision between the crystals and graupel particles ( Williams et al. 2002 , 2005 ; WS02 ; Takahashi 1978 ). WS02 pointed out that the width of a thermal plume could be associated with the boundary layer height based on the classic similarity theory of Morton et al. (1956) . This simple parcel theory showed that a buoyant thermal parcel originating from point sources has a constant expansion (~10° expansion angle

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

snowfall events. The Wang et al. (2013) study partitioned snowfall events into various snowfall categories based on CloudSat -estimated cloud-top height to illustrate the distribution of cloud liquid water by snowfall type and the multifrequency microwave radiometer response to cloud liquid water. Further methodological differences between the Wang et al. (2013) study and the current study are discussed in section 2 . While these previous studies introduced CloudSat ’s ability to detect shallow

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

and collected in the AR database. (b) Topography map with elevation (m MSL). In (a) the latitude positions at 32.5°, 41.0°, and 52.5°N along the coast represent the boundaries of the south coast and north coast AR landfalls. In (b), dashed boxes B1 and B2 delineate two study areas discussed later in the present study. 4. Results Here the assessment is performed using long-term statistics, providing more reliable assessment, as well as two event-based case studies. a. 10-yr composite analyses

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