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Maik Renner, Axel Kleidon, Martyn Clark, Bart Nijssen, Marvin Heidkamp, Martin Best, and Gab Abramowitz

redistribution into the lower atmosphere is achieved by turbulent heat transfer driving the atmospheric boundary layer development ( Oke 1987 ), while subsurface heat redistribution includes the conduction and storage of heat in the soil and canopy. These processes are linked through the surface energy balance [in simplified form following Ohmura (2014) ] (1) R sd − R su + R ld − H − λ E − d U s / d t = ϵ s σ T 4 , where R sd is the incoming and R su the reflected solar radiation at the surface, R ld

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Grey S. Nearing, Benjamin L. Ruddell, Martyn P. Clark, Bart Nijssen, and Christa Peters-Lidard

similar conclusions after benchmarking CLM and ORCHIDEE against linear and nonlinear regressions (again with no state memory), and Nearing et al. (2016) used benchmarking to show that Noah, SAC-SMA, Mosaic, and VIC each use generally less than half of the information available to them from parameters and boundary conditions. Results like this indicate that there is substantial potential to improve even our most sophisticated land models. One result lacking in these benchmarking studies was any

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